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Inquiry-based Practical Chemistry & its Assessment 探究為本化學實驗的推行及評估

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Presentation on theme: "Inquiry-based Practical Chemistry & its Assessment 探究為本化學實驗的推行及評估"— Presentation transcript:

1 Inquiry-based Practical Chemistry & its Assessment 探究為本化學實驗的推行及評估
5 Nov 2005 Science Education Section EDB

2 Programme Registration Introduction Mr W C HO, EDB
9:00 – 9:15 / 2:00 – 2:15 Registration 9:15 – 9:20 / 2:15 – 2:20 Introduction Mr W C HO, EDB 9:20 – 10:30 / 2:20 – 3:30 Why teachers need to implement inquiry-based teaching? Approaches and samples of inquiry-based experiments Prof Derek Cheung, Faculty of Ed, CUHK 10:30 – 10:40 / 3:30 – 3:40 Break 10:40 – 11:45 / 3:40 – 4:45 How to assess inquiry-based practical work? Samples of scoring rubrics 11:45 – 12:00 / 4:45 – 5:00 More samples of inquiry-based chemistry expts

3 Scientific Inquiry Inquiry - an active engaging process that mimics the work done by actual scientists. Require students to design some or all of the procedures (ownership and motivation): autonomy Increase the opportunities for students to think about the data they should collect and their presentation Lead to a deeper understanding of scientific concepts In guided inquiry, students choose what data to be collected design the procedures to address the question for investigation In open inquiry, students make almost all the decisions including the questions for investigation

4 Scientific Inquiry “The diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on the evidence from their work.” “The activities through which students develop knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, as well as an understanding of how scientists study natural world.” US National Science Education Standards Scientific enquiries can be used to achieve a wide variety of educational aims, including teaching about the content of the topic and the skills and processes of carrying out an investigation.

5 Scientific Enquiry National Curriculum Handbook for Teacher DfES, UK

6 “Inquiry-based teaching engages students in investigations to satisfy curiosities, with curiosities being satisfied when individuals have constructed mental frameworks that adequately explain their experiences.” “Inquiry-based teaching begins or at least involves stimulating curiosity or provoking wonder. There is no authentic investigation or meaningful learning if there is no inquiring mind seeking an answer, solution, explanation, or decision.”

7 Types of Scientific Enquiry
Surveys and correlations (pattern seeking) Controlling variables (fair test) Identification and classification Using and evaluating a technique Technology (make something or invent a system to solve the problem) Using experimental models and analogies to explore an explanation, hypothesis or theory Using secondary sources →appropriate approach to solve the problem

8 Goldsworthy A, Watson R, & Robinson V W (2000) Developing Understanding in Scientific Enquiry, ASE
Sang D & Robinson V W (2002) Teaching Secondary Scientific Enquiry, ASE 

9 Authentic Investigations that are Meaningful to Students
Drain Cleaners Mosquitoes repellants Antioxidants in fruits and tea Vitamin C in fruits and drinks (Does Ribena contain 4 times the vitamin C of oranges?) Biodiesel from vegetable oils Fuel cell from pencil and aluminium can Hot cup and fever eliminator Preventing corrosion of metals Colour-safe bleach Skin whitening cream Tooth whitening strip Chloride content in foodstuffs Prevent metal from corrosion (e.g. bridge, wok)

10 Quantitative Investigations
Do iron tablets deteriorate? Titration of iron(II) sulphate with KMnO4 The salt content of different foods Titration of chloride ions with AgNO3 using KCrO4 as indicator Chlorine in swimming pools

11 Qualitative Investigations
Oxygen-absorber (脫氧劑/脫酸素劑) present in packages of moon-cakes Find out the chemical species responsible for oxygen absorption Simple chemical tests

12 Preparative Investigations
Biodiesel Energy crisis Demonstrate the green chemistry principle of using renewable resources Prepare biodiesel from vegetable oils Compare properties with other fuels

13 Amazing Miracle Use milk in making Plastic Glue Invisible glove
Photographic film Fire resistant paint

14 Natural Mosquito Repellant from Fruit Peels
Mosquito-borne diseases e.g. Dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) 避蚊胺 Terpineol in fruit peels Fradin, M.S. & Day, J. F. (2002) Comparative Efficacy of Insect Repellents against Mosquito Bites. New England J. of Medicine. 347(1), pp A container with essential oil container with distilled water B T-shaped tube bottle containing mosquitoes

15 Design and Make Investigations
Using enthalpy changes for heating and cooling in camping Design and make a self-heating can to heat the coffee contained in a standard size can to 65oC and to maintain it at this temperature for up to 30 minutes Design and make a pocket hand-warmer a system that could be used to keep drink cool

16 Aluminium-Air Fuel Cell
Construct useful things from waste materials Design and construct an aluminium-air fuel cell from soft drink cans Investigate the current produced with different electrolytes Investigate the cell e.m.f. and current produced with different metal anodes

17 Fair Tests Investigating the effects of varying fuels and electrolytes on the electrical energy generated in an alkaline fuel cell Further investigations on electrochemical cells: determine the concentration of unknown solution potentiometric titration

18 Menthos and Cola Adds a "Menthos" type candy to a glass of soda pop. Students observe an increase in "fizz" or release in carbon dioxide. Possible explanations? Investigations: different candies / cola, no. of candies, temp, container, shape of candy

19 CD-ROM Possible Chemistry Investigations

20 Laboratory Investigations

21 Problem-solving Activities
In Search of Solutions Egg Races (enjoyable, competitive, practical problem-solving activities which required some application of chemical principles); free download In Search of More Solutions

22 Investigation Sheets Background, Practical Techniques, Where to Start, Possible Investigations, Source of Information, Teacher Notes

23 Teachers’ role Choose activities that match students’ background knowledge and reasoning skills Communicate effectively to students what the educational purposes of the investigation (learning of scientific process and answering the question being investigated) Challenging students to defend the quality of their evidence and arguments Creating an environment in which students become critical of their own and others’ evidence Expose students’ thinking and make it more accessible to discussion and development using displayed questions or variable tables, etc

24 Questioning Strategies for helping students ask questions
Provide students with an observable phenomenon to ask questions about Have students read articles regarding interesting happenings in science Suggest possible topics for investigation (a list of possible investigations) e.g. How much NaOCl is found in commercial bleaches and how does it compare to the claimed? Edwards, C H(1997)

25 From Cookbook to Inquiry
Transition to inquiry-based instruction by implementing changes gradually e.g. remove the data table Shifting toward guided and open inquiry by continuing to remove the supports of the activity Assessment should stress goals in scientific reasoning and critical thinking in addition to content knowledge Assess students’ abilities to generate open-ended and researchable queries, devise scientific procedure, interpret data

26 Assessment Achievement level matrixes in internal assessment of International Baccalaureate (IB) 2 aspects apply to data collection (collecting and recording raw data; organizing and presenting raw data), data processing and presentation, and manipulative skills 3 aspects apply to planning, conclusion and evaluation, personal skills Level 3 2 1 Completely Partially Not at all

27 References Baumgartner E. (2004). Student Poster Sessions. The Science Teacher. March, pp Colburn, A. (2004). Inquiry scientists wants to know. Educational Leadership. 62, pp Colburn, A. (1997). How to make lab activities more open ended. CSTA Journal, pp.4-6. Edwards, C. H. (1997). Promoting Student Inquiry. The Science Teacher. 64 (7). pp Lechtanski, V.L. (2000). Inquiry-based Experiments in Chemistry. New York: Oxford University Press. Lunsford, E. & Melear, C. T. (2004). Using scoring rubrics to evaluate inquiry. J. of College Science Teaching, Sept. 侯傑泰 (2004)《 專題研究手冊初級版》香港:朗文。 侯傑泰 (2004)《 專題研究手冊進階版》香港:朗文。

28 What if …

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