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What is Enquiry Based Learning? Ivan Moore Director CPLA.

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1 What is Enquiry Based Learning? Ivan Moore Director CPLA

2 A starting point EBL represents a shift away from passive methods, which involve the transmission of knowledge to students, to more facilitative teaching methods through which students are expected to construct their own knowledge and understanding by engaging in supported processes of enquiry

3 What is Enquiry Based Learning? Enquiry Based Learning is a natural form of learning, borne out of our innate sense of curiosity and desire to understand It is generically applicable, and has grown from modelling learning in a number of subjects

4 Active, student-centred, authentic, supported Learning driven by a process of enquiry or investigation Involves complex, intriguing ‘real-life’ stimuli –Intentional –unintentional Student-centred Requires action Connects theory and practice Supported process Develops skills Social Enjoyable

5 First group task Background: A team of academic staff have decided to introduce EBL to next year’s first year intake. They have asked you to design a poster that will explain what EBL is to the students. The poster will be displayed in the Atrium for the first 3 weeks of term The task: Design an outline poster (draft) Present your ideas to a panel of students

6 Academic skills Research Students determine and pursue THEIR OWN lines of enquiry –Large scale enquiries-macro –Small scale enquiries-micro Information They build on what they already know They identify what information they need They find, evaluate and use the information They may communicate their learning to others

7 Professional skills Team working and leadership Inter-personal skills –Negotiation –Decision making –Handling conflict –Sharing Communication skills –Presentation, explaining, questioning Managing projects and meetings

8 Personal skills Taking and accepting responsibility –Ethics and moral sense Planning Balancing creativity with resilience

9 Motivation Authentic Realistic challenge Locus of control Feedback and support Shared learning –success Socialises the learning

10 Some ‘drivers’…. Supports transition into and through Higher Education Integration – knowledge, cultural, social Lifelong learning – information explosion Inter-professional and interdisciplinary learning Promotes the links between teaching, learning and research Autonomy, employability, and professional body requirements

11 EBL to Promote Learning Practice in a ‘safe’ environment Research skills Accommodates different learning styles Information retrieval Analysis and synthesis Reflection and review

12 EBL - Skills for Work and Life Encourages exploration, curiosity Creative problem-solving Responsibility Time-management and organisation Communication and negotiation Leadership and team-work Empathy and understanding Practical application of theory

13 Making the case (part 1) Background: the University’s Development Committee has invited academic staff to bid for funding to introduce EBL into first year programmes. Your subject team wishes to bid for this fund. You are required to make a presentation to Development Committee. You have been asked to scope the presentation: what it needs to include, what evidence or information you need to present, and a two-week project plan for preparing for a rehearsal with your learning and teaching committee Task: Identify the key arguments and rationales for implementing EBL to first years. Prepare a 3 minute (max) presentation to LTC, giving a framework for your final presentation to DC. –Identify your arguments, what you know about each, what you still need to find out, and how you will get this information and prepare the presentation in the given timescales.

14 Role of the students Accept responsibility for their learning Establish group roles, if any Analyze the stimulus Identify learning goals Determine a plan of activity and agree individual tasks/responsibilities Report individual findings and collate research Complete the task (e.g. present findings) Undertake assessment tasks Give and receive feedback

15 Role of the tutor/facilitator Prepare the students – benefits and expectations, change of role, working in groups Devise the stimulus –Carefully crafted scenarios, triggers, problems Prepare the resources, determine the assessment method(s) and any deadlines Facilitate the group processes and the learning –Guide lines of enquiry – ask open-ended questions –Support for any difficulties with groups or individuals Explain clearly the assessment process and criteria Share the experience Give and receive feedback

16 The scale of the investigation In-class Between classes (1 week) 2-3 weeks 6-12 weeks or longer Resources provided, small scale investigations, may or may not be linked Initial discussion, students find information from different sources. Need to share outside class. Report back week 2 Middle week(s) for ‘catch up’, consolidate, review and plan Large scale investigation, significantly more autonomy, opportunity for in-depth investigation (deep learning)

17 Where to begin Select a topic Determine timescale for investigation –Allow for induction, presentation and assessment –Pilot over 3 or 4 weeks in a module –Evaluate it

18 The first year experience Transition with Immersion –Consolidate what they know and begin to build knowledge base Develop skills –Learning, intellectual, professional –Critical awareness Sense of self and others –Take responsibility for their own learning –Confidence, motivation, fun –Socialise their learning

19 Recognisable forms of EBL Design Problem Based Learning Case Based Learning Field Trips Dissertations, projects Research

20 Making the case (part 2) Background: the University’s Development Committee has invited academic staff to bid for funding to introduce EBL into first year programmes. Your subject team wishes to bid for this fund. You are required to make a presentation to Development Committee. You have been asked to scope the presentation: what it needs to include, what evidence or information you need to present, and a two-week project plan for preparing for a rehearsal with your learning and teaching committee Task: prepare your presentation (max 3 mins) to LTC. Identify any missing information and how you will find it.

21 Some examples CS Dentistry Elec engg The business OT

22 EBL in the First year: Computer Science Incorporation of EBL into first-year curriculum to give the degree something distinctive and attractive Need to motivate and enthuse the students right from the start Need to introduce students at this early stage to independent learning skills Pilot activities and trials carried out with second- year students – evolution rather than revolution

23 Computer Science Knowledge and skills developed in first-year should equip the students more adequately for subsequent years EBL tasks require first-year students to synthesise learning derived from several course units Allows second and third year courses to be more ambitious with regard to active learning approaches and more technically demanding projects

24 Phase 4: 11 weeks Build application Demos and poster Group report Individual reflection First Year Computer Science A whole-year, ‘phased’ approach Phase 3: 6 weeks World-wide what? Group application Presentations and poster Phase 2: 3 weeks Ethics: killer robot Group presentation Select framework Phase 1: 2 weeks Software patents 2 teams in debate Expectations, skills and group ground rules Phase 0: 2 hours

25 Computer Science – Support for first-year Enquiry-Based Learning Introduction to EBL and skills for effective group- work Intensive staff consultation and development sessions Small group sizes (6-8 students) EBL facilitator is also personal tutor to group members Students eased into EBL experience gradually through a series of increasingly challenging activities Regular feedback Key lectures to inform and inspire

26 Phase 4: 11 weeks Group demo, presentation and poster Group report Individual reflection Assessment Phase 3: 6 weeks Group presentation Group poster Phase 2: 3 weeks Ethical framework Phase 1: 2 weeks Debate Ground rules Phase 0: 2 hours

27 Dentistry Five year programme Based on 5 years experience of PBL through a common curriculum with Medicine 120 students Year themes and academic themes PBL exercises in two forms: –In-class workshops – 3 hours –2-weekly problems


29 EBL in the First Year - Pharmacy We are Pharmacists – why do we need all this ‘dull’ Chemistry? Using EBL to support students in taking an integrated approach to their learning and to recognise the pivotal role played by Chemistry in the use of medicines Professional body (RPSGB) requires graduates to develop independent learning skills, self- management, peer evaluation skills, as well as team-working

30 Pharmacy ‘Pharmaceutical Chemistry’ second semester core module for 190 first-year students Diverse cohort of students All students have completed module ‘Basic Organic Chemistry’ in semester 1

31 Pharmacy – Support for Enquiry-Based Learning Introduction to EBL at start of Semester 2 Subject-specialist ‘drop-in’ sessions at key stages of the investigation Guidance on poster production and presentation Peer mentoring programme

32 Format Students worked in teams of 6-8 Negotiated a therapeutic area on which to focus their enquiry Chose three drugs from British National Formulary to apply to chosen condition Therapeutic areas allocated on ‘first come, first served’ basis (maximum two groups for each condition) Students decided on team structure, roles, responsibilities Devised formal action plan

33 Assessment Six components consisting of: E-mail communication with facilitator with details of chosen therapeutic area, drugs and outline of the team structure (5%) Initial report on the therapeutic area (15%) List of generic chemical information under research (10%) Poster presentation (20%) Final full report (40%) Peer evaluation of team process/contribution made (10%)

34 First year Occupational Therapy First year, 10-credit module, first semester –3 weeks full time, exclusive Students come with little confidence in Blackboard –See it mostly as a repository for information Opportunity to involve third year students –Recap on first-year work –Provide support for first year students

35 General outline of organisation 6 groups of students, 8-10 per group 3 weeks (short and fat) 7 hours formal contact per week –1 lecture (1 hour), 2 EBL sessions (2 hours), 1 workshop (2 hours) Students are presented with a client referral –One of 3 –E.g. dementia of alzheimer’s type 2 years ago Fire in flat, unkempt and malnourished ?progression of dementia? assess function and future care needs Provide programme of structured activity to increase socialisation Year three volunteer students role play (carer, warden, client) Academic staff role play Multi-Disciplinary Team (MDT)

36 The scheme Week 1Week 2Week 3 EBL session 1 Students receive and analyse referral. Develop questions. Interview MDT ‘Consultant’ calls emergency meeting. Assessment findings presented EBL session 2 Discuss with 3 rd years (in role) Identify gaps in understanding (OT language and principles) Consolidate what known and what to investigate* Students present a treatment plan to consultant (goldfish bowl)*

37 Consolidation Discussion board on blackboard 3 strands –MDT –Patient –Group decision-making Goldfish bowl 2 reps per group Consultant in centre Rest of group act as supporters/provide information during ‘time outs’ as requested

38 Making the case (part 3) Background: the University’s Development Committee has invited academic staff to bid for funding to introduce EBL into first year programmes. Your team wishes to bid for this fund. You are required to make a presentation to Development Committee. You have learned that DC wants to know the implications for staff development and skills and would appreciate some examples of what EBL ‘looks like’. Task: Refine your arguments and ideas on the basis of the feedback and any further information you now have. –Prepare a formal 5 minute group presentation to DC The committee will make their final decision on the basis of these presentations.

39 Getting to know the team The course and expectations How and why? Communication, teamwork and skills Meetings, and how to make them work Setting ground rules Preparing First Year Students for EBL

40 The cure for boredom is curiosity. There is no cure for curiosity.... Dorothy Parker ‘I have no special talents. I am only passionately curious’ (Albert Einstein)

41 What was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned during this session? What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as we end this session? What was the ‘muddiest’ point in this session? As a result of this session: –What will you stop doing? –What will you start doing? –What will you continue doing? What further activities, support or events do you think this group would benefit from?

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