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Assessment in an RTI Environment Michael C. McKenna University of Virginia

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Presentation on theme: "Assessment in an RTI Environment Michael C. McKenna University of Virginia"— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessment in an RTI Environment Michael C. McKenna University of Virginia

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5 comprehensivereadingsolutions.com

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7 Why assess? To plan instruction  Screening  Diagnostic To see if it works  Progress Monitoring

8 Screening test No problem indicated No further testing Problem identified Diagnostic test Targeted instruction Progress monitoring Problem addressed Problem not addressed

9 Screening test No problem indicated No further testing Problem identified Diagnostic test Targeted instruction Progress monitoring Problem addressed Problem not addressed

10 Screening test No problem indicated No further testing Problem identified Diagnostic test Targeted instruction Progress monitoring Problem addressed Problem not addressed

11 Screening test No problem indicated No further testing Problem identified Diagnostic test Targeted instruction Progress monitoring Problem addressed Problem not addressed

12 Myths about diagnostic assessment

13  You need lots to make RTI work.  Only specialists can give them.

14 Standard Protocol or Problem Solving Approach?

15 Cognitive Model of Assessment

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17 Stages of reading development? Fluency Word Recognition Phonemic Awareness

18 Stages of reading development? Comprehension Vocabulary Oral Language Development Fluency Word Recognition Phonemic Awareness

19 An assessment strategy for foundational skills Fluency Word Recognition Phonemic Awareness

20 An assessment strategy for foundational skills Fluency Word Recognition Phonemic Awareness

21 An assessment strategy for foundational skills Fluency Word Recognition Phonemic Awareness

22 An assessment toolkit  Screening (Comprehension or Fluency)  Informal Decoding Inventory  Sight Word Inventory  Fluency Checks

23 An assessment toolkit  Screening (Comprehension or Fluency)  Informal Decoding Inventory  Sight Word Inventory  Fluency Checks

24 Informal Decoding Inventory Part I: Single-Syllable Decoding  Short Vowels  Consonant Blends and Digraphs  R-Controlled Vowel Patterns  Vowel-Consonant-e  Vowel Teams Part II: Multisyllabic Decoding  Compound Words  Closed Syllables  Open Syllables  VC-e Syllables  R-controlled Syllables  Vowel Team Syllables  C+le Syllables

25 Some inconvenient truths about assessment Miscue analysis is a waste of time. 1.

26 Her bangs were over her eyes.

27 Some inconvenient truths about assessment Decoding skills should be assessed in isolation. 2.

28 Some inconvenient truths about assessment Informal reading inventories are unreliable. 3.

29 Some inconvenient truths about assessment There is no diagnostic test of comprehension. 4.

30 Cognitive Model of Assessment

31 Some inconvenient truths about assessment Comprehension can’t be progress monitored. 5.

32 Some inconvenient truths about assessment There’s no good way to assess vocabulary. 6.

33 Some inconvenient truths about assessment Motivation is important. 9.

34 Some inconvenient truths about assessment Kids are complicated. 8.

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41 New TermsOld Terms Tier 3Remedial Tier 2Corrective Tier 1Developmental

42 A stairway to proficiency

43 In our approach, all students receive differentiated instruction in small groups.

44 We therefore like to call it response to instruction.

45 Is the child at benchmark in oral reading fluency?

46 Yes Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read) Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read)

47 Is the child at benchmark in oral reading fluency? No Yes Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read) Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read) Are all or nearly all decoding skills mastered?

48 Is the child at benchmark in oral reading fluency? No Yes Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read) Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read) Are all or nearly all decoding skills mastered? Yes Fluency and Comprehension

49 Is the child at benchmark in oral reading fluency? No Yes Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read) Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read) Are all or nearly all decoding skills mastered? Yes Fluency and Comprehension No Is the child at benchmark in decoding?

50 Is the child at benchmark in oral reading fluency? No Yes Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read) Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read) Are all or nearly all decoding skills mastered? Yes Fluency and Comprehension No Is the child at benchmark in decoding? Yes Vocabulary and Comprehension (Teacher Reads Aloud) Vocabulary and Comprehension (Teacher Reads Aloud)

51 Is the child at benchmark in oral reading fluency? No Yes Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read) Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read) Are all or nearly all decoding skills mastered? Yes Fluency and Comprehension No Is the child at benchmark in decoding? Yes Vocabulary and Comprehension (Teacher Reads Aloud) Vocabulary and Comprehension (Teacher Reads Aloud) No Has the child acquired full phonological awareness?

52 Is the child at benchmark in oral reading fluency? No Yes Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read) Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read) Are all or nearly all decoding skills mastered? Yes Fluency and Comprehension No Is the child at benchmark in decoding? Yes Vocabulary and Comprehension (Teacher Reads Aloud) Vocabulary and Comprehension (Teacher Reads Aloud) No Has the child acquired full phonological awareness? Yes Word Recognition and Fluency

53 Is the child at benchmark in oral reading fluency? No Yes Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read) Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read) Are all or nearly all decoding skills mastered? Yes Fluency and Comprehension No Is the child at benchmark in decoding? Yes Vocabulary and Comprehension (Teacher Reads Aloud) Vocabulary and Comprehension (Teacher Reads Aloud) No Has the child acquired full phonological awareness? Yes Word Recognition and Fluency Phonemic Awareness and Word Recognition Phonemic Awareness and Word Recognition No

54 If fluency is weak, you should A.Use research-based fluency strategies like repeated readings, partner reading, etc. B.Check first to see if there are significant gaps in word recognition skills.

55 If both fluency and word recognition are weak, you should A.Use research-based word recognition strategies that are explicit and systematic. B.Check first to see if there are significant gaps in phonological awareness.

56 { Four Basic Groups

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58 Takeaways  You don’t need many assessments at Tier 2.  Get rid of the ones you don’t need.  Use your toolkit to form small groups.  Reassess every three weeks.  Aim for “upward mobility” on the staircase.  Don’t forget motivation.  Check out each of the group types at: 

59 References Afflerbach, P., & Cho, B. (2011). The classroom assessment of reading. In M. L. Kamil, P. D. Pearson, E. B. Moje, & P. P. Afflerbach (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 4, pp ). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group. McKenna, M. C., & Picard, M. (2006/2007). Does miscue analysis have a role in effective practice? The Reading Teacher, 60, McKenna, M. C., & Stahl, K. A. D. (2009). Assessment for reading instruction (2 nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Pearson, P. D., Hiebert, E. H., & Kamil, M. L. (2007). Vocabulary assessment: What we know and what we need to learn. Reading Research Quarterly, 42, Spector, J. E. (2005). How reliable are informal reading inventories? Psychology in the Schools, 42, Stahl, K. A. D., & McKenna, M. C. (2012). Reading assessment in an RTI framework. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Walpole, S., & McKenna, M. C. (2006). The role of informal reading inventories in assessing word recognition. The Reading Teacher, 59, Walpole, S., & McKenna, M. C. (2009). How to plan differentiated reading instruction: Resources for grades K-3. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Walpole, S., McKenna, M. C., & Philippakos, Z. (2011). Differentiated reading instruction in grades 4 and 5: Strategies and resources. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

60 More resources …


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