Presentation on theme: "Basic First Aid OSHA defines first aid as, “emergency care provided for injury or sudden illness before professional emergency medical treatment becomes."— Presentation transcript:
1Basic First AidOSHA defines first aid as, “emergency care provided for injury or sudden illness before professional emergency medical treatment becomes available.”Goal: Knowledge & Confidence
2First aid providerAt work, injuries and illnesses kill about 2.2 million people in the world each year.Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death in the United States for individuals younger than 44 years of age.In the U.S., about 1/3 of all injuries and 20% of injury deaths occur at home.For every home injury death there are about 650 nonfatal home injuries.The essential responsibilities of a first aid provider are:Recognizing a medical emergencyMaking the decision to helpIdentifying hazards and ensuring personal safetyActivating EMSProviding supportive basic first aid care
3Legal ConsiderationsAll states have passed “Good Samaritan laws” to help encourage bystanders to assist those in need. These laws protect anyone who:Voluntarily provides assistance, without expecting or accepting compensationIs reasonable and prudentDoes not provide care beyond the training receivedIs not “grossly negligent,” or completely careless, in delivering emergency careGood Samaritan Laws vary slightly from state-to-stateBe familiar with the laws in your stateEveryone has a right to refuse medical treatment- Always ask a responsive person if they want help before providing care.When a person is or becomes unresponsive, the legal concept of “implied consent” allows a provider to help without asking. It assumes the person would agree to be helped if responsive.
4Legal consideration cont. If parent or guardian is present, obtain the parent or guardian’s consent prior to giving care.When one is not present, the consent is implied.Provide care and contact a parent or guardian as soon as reasonably possible.There has never been a successful lawsuit in the US against a person providing first aid in good faith.Activate EMS immediatelyIf the scene is unsafe, do not enterNever attempt skills that exceed provider trainingOnce care has begun, and it is safe to do so, remain with the ill or injured person until someone with equal or greater emergency medical training takes over.
5Recognizing an emergency and deciding to help The most critical decision a provider will make is whether to get involved when a medical emergency has occurred.Reasons you might be hesitant:You feel like you’re alone in helpingMaking things worseTraining provides you with knowledge and skills designed only to help—and not harm– those in need.You think you don’t have a lot of medical knowledgeNot necessary, First Aid skills are based on effective procedures that can be easily learned and safely applied.Others have already stopped to helpIt never hurts to see if any additional assistance is needed.
6Personal safety Emergency scenes are often unsafe Provider’s personal safety is always the highest priority, even before the safety of an ill or injured personAlways pause before approaching an emergency and look for obvious hazards.If unsafe, do not approachIf the location you’re in is unsafe, get outWhen caring for someone, a provider can be exposed to blood or other potentially infectious body fluids.While the risk of contracting a disease is extremely low, it is prudent to take simple measures to avoid exposure
7Personal safety cont.Infectious blood borne diseases include the following:Hepatitis BHepatitis CHIV, the virus that causes AIDSExposure can occur through the direct contact with infectious material such as:Through an open wound or soreThrough the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, and eyesThrough a skin puncture with a contaminated, sharp objectReducing exposure lowers the chance of infection
8Personal safety cont.“Universal Precautions” is an approach that recommends handling all blood and other body substances as if they are infectious.To be effective, the approach is the same for everyone, regardless of age or relationship.Disposable gloves are the most commonly used barrier.Inspect gloves for damage or tears before useIf damaged replace immediatelyRemove contaminated gloves properlyUse a shield or CPR mask for rescue breathsA provider may choose to not use barriers, depending on relationship to the person and knowledge of the person’s health status.If a provider doesn’t have personal protective equipment, you may choose to improvise.Towel, plastic bag, anything that can help avoid direct contact
9Emergency medical services (ems) An EMS system typically uses specialized emergency communication to gather information and dispatch appropriate emergency resources.One of the fundamental responsibilities of a trained provider is to activate the EMS system in an emergency,Immediate activation of EMS recommended when:A person is unresponsiveA significant mechanism of injury has occurredA warning sign of serious illness existsThe severity of a person’s condition is unclearEMS providers:Respond directly to emergency scenesProvide emergency medical careTransport ill or injured people to a hospitalActivating EMS—calling a universal emergency telephone number, such as 911.
10Emergency medical services cont. Ideally, one person should call EMS while another person cares for the ill or injured person.EMS dispatcher will ask for basic info:Type of emergencyLocationThe number and conditions of those who are ill or injuredWhat care is being providedAnswer the dispatcher’s questions as clearly as possible. Only hang up if directed to do so by the dispatcher.There may be an Emergency Action Plan in the workplace that consists of specific procedures on how to respond to internal emergencies and activate EMS.Majority of medical emergencies occur at home, so it is also smart to develop a personal emergency response plan for your home and review it frequently with members of your household.
11Primary assessment—unresponsive person The primary assessment helps a provider assess for immediate life-threatening problems, activate the EMS system, and rapidly provide priority care.Follow this Skill Guide for Primary Assessment of an Unresponsive Person.Assess the SceneCheck for ResponseActivate EMS and get an AEDLook for normal breathingProvide indicated careIf breathing—recovery positionNot breathing—CPRUse AED as soon as it is available
12Primary assessment—unresponsive person If you see an adult collapse and find she is unresponsive and not breathing, or only gasping, the immediate application of continuous compression to the chest and use of an AED could significantly increase the person’s chance of surviving.Compression-only CPR is a simpler, but limited, alternative to standard CPR, which combines compressions and rescue breaths. As a first aid provider, it is highly recommended for you to receive additional training in standard CPR.
13Unresponsive and breathing– recovery position Even if a person is breathing normally, a lack of responsiveness is still considered to be a life- threatening condition that requires immediate care.There are a variety of things that can result in unresponsiveness:Medical conditionsExternal factors such as alcohol or drug overdoseRegardless of cause, the greatest treatment concern is the ability of the person to maintain a clear and open airway.Positioning an uninjured, unresponsive person in the recovery position can help maintain and protect the airway.Uses gravity to drain fluids from the mouth and keep the tongue from blocking the airway.
14Primary assessment– responsive person Just as with an unresponsive person, the primary assessment for someone who is responsive is to assess for and immediately treat life-threatening problems, including bleeding and shock.Follow this Skill Guide for Primary Assessment of a Responsive Person:Assess the SceneIntroduce yourselfCheck for bleedingCheck for tissue color and body temperatureActivate EMS
15Primary assessment– responsive person Tissue color depends on the amount of blood circulating below the skin.Normal tissue color is light pinkPaleness can indicate blood loss or shockA bluish color can indicate lack of oxygenNormal skin feels warm and dry. Cool, wet skin can be an indication of shock.Emergencies are dynamic events that can change at any time. Reassessment is the ongoing observation of an ill or injured person to monitor his or her condition and the effectiveness of first aid.
16Primary assessment– responsive person Make sure the situation remains safe for you to be there.Watch for changes in a person’s level of responsiveness.Ensure the airway is open and clear and that the person is breathing normally.Reassess to ensure external bleeding is controlled.Look for changes in the person’s tissue color or skin temperature.Check at regular intervals until another provider or EMS personnel takes over.
17Secondary assessmentWhen a primary indicates no life- threatening problems, complete a secondary assessment to gather additional information.Follow this Skill Guide for Secondary Assessment:Determine the person’s chief complaintLook Around.Mechanisms of force that caused the injury may help predict the presence of a hidden injury.Clues in the environmentLook at the personBriefly assess the person from head to toe. Look and feel for signs of injury and illness
18Secondary assessment Remember DOTS: DeformitiesOpen injuriesTendernessSwellingIf needed, remove or cut away clothing to get a better look at an affected body part.Compare one side of the body to the other.If at any time you suspect spinal injury, immediately provide spinal motion restriction by manually stabilizing the head.
19Secondary assessment Ask questions Symptoms- Things the person is feeling, such as pain, nausea, dizziness, or anything related to the situationAllergies- Things the person may be allergic toMedications- prescribed or is takingPast Medical history- problems that may be related to what’s going onLast oral intake- when the person last ate or drankEvents leading up to problem- what the person was doing just prior to the problemIf you find or begin to suspect a life-threatening problem is occurring while performing a secondary assessment, immediately stop, activate EMS, and provide primary care
20Control of bleedingBleeding reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood. If heavy or uncontrolled, bleeding can quickly become life-threatening.Arterial bleeding is bright red and will often spurt from a woundIf the blood is dark red and flowing steady, it is likely coming from a damaged vein.Activate EMS for any heavy bleeding.Bleeding exposes the provider to potentially infectious body fluidsAlways use protective barriersContinuous firm and direct pressure applied to a wound is the best method for controlling external bleeding
21Control of bleeding Follow this Skill Guide for Control of Bleeding Apply direct pressureClean, absorbent pad. Apply pressure with the flats of the fingers directly on the point of bleeding.Apply a pressure bandageWrap roller gauze or elastic bandage around limb or over injury for continuous pressure.If bleeding continues, follow these stepsIf blood soaks through pad, apply another pad, leave the initial pad.Apply more pressure with the palm of the handManage shockIf the person has no difficulty breathing, lay person flat on groundMaintain normal body temperature, do not overheatGive nothing to eat or drink, even if they askKeep the person comfortable and calm
22Internal bleedingA significant blow can create injury and bleeding inside the body. This is especially true for organs in the chest and abdomen.Internal bleeding can be difficult to detect. Signs of shock may be the earliest indication that internal bleeding is occurring. Suspect it if the chest or abdomen is hit hard.Surgery may be the only way to control internal bleedingEarly suspicion and activation of EMS is critical for effective treatment, and possibly survival
23Managing shockShock develops when poor blood flow creates a shortage of oxygen to body tissues. Any serious illness or injury has the potential to cause shock.Shock is progressive, early signs can be difficult to detect. A person may appear uneasy, restless, or worried.Responsiveness may diminishThe skin may become pale, cool, and sweatyA person in shock must get to the hospital as soon as possible in order to surviveTo limit the effects of shock:Ensure an open and secure airway, normal breathing and control any external bleeding
24Managing shock Maintain body temperature Give nothing to eat or drink If you suspect head or back injury, do not move the person, tuck the blanket underneath as much as possible.Give nothing to eat or drinkReassess regularly until EMS take over
25amputation Amputation is the complete loss of a body part If an amputation has occurred, quickly:Assess for and control any severe bleedingActivate EMSCalm, comfort, and reassure the personReassess regularly until another provider or EMS take overAmputated body parts can often be surgically reattached.Once the person is stable, locate the severed partWrap it in sterile or clean clothPlace the part in a tightly sealed plastic bag or waterproof containerPlace the bag or container on iceDo not soak the severed part in water, do not put it directly on ice. Give it to EMS providers for transport with the person to the hospital
26Impaled objectAn object that penetrates the body and remains embedded.As a general rule, never remove an impaled object. It can act like a plug and prevent serious blood loss.If you suspect impalement has occurred, remove or cut away clothing to confirm the object has penetrated the skin. Look for any serious bleeding.Keep the person still to prevent movementUse a clean pad to apply direct pressure around the base of the object, if the injury is bleeding. Use additional padding to stabilize the objectActivate EMS for any significant impaled object or if in doubt about its severityTreat for shock
27Open chest injuryA puncture injury through the chest wall can disrupt the chest’s ability to draw air into the lungsIf the provider suspects an injury has penetrated the chest wall, remove clothing to expose the injury siteCheck for exit injury on the other sideIf there are two wounds treat the more serious one firstAir movement through the wound can be indicated by foamy, bloody air bubbles.Quickly cover with something airtight only on 3 sides, to allow for trapped air to escape, secure with tape if availableActivate EMSAllow the person to assume a position that is comfortable for themRegularly reassess
28Open abdominal injuryInjury to the abdomen may result in “evisceration,” a condition in which abdominal organs protrude through an open woundProtect them from further injuryIf an open abdominal injury occurs:Activate EMSCover any protruding organs with a thick, moist dressingDo not apply direct pressure on the wound or exposed internal partsTreat for shockRegularly assess until EMS takes over
29Head, neck, or back injury Temporary or permanent paralysisConfusion, and disorientationInstruct responsive person to remain stillAsk about the injuryLook for obvious injuryAsk about numbness, tingling, burning, or loss of sensationPriority is to help prevent further injury and use spinal motion restrictionMake sure scene is safeEncourage the person not to moveHave a bystander activate EMS
30Spinal motion restriction Stabilize the headGet into a comfortable position behind the personCup your hands on both sides of the persons head, without covering ears– do not stop the flow of fluid from ears or noseKeep the head, neck and spine in line. Minimize motionComfort, calm, and reassure the personDistress and discomfort may make it difficult to restrict spinal motion in a child. Try your best to hold the head in the position in which it was foundProtect the airwayEstablishing and maintaining an airway for an unresponsive person is a higher priority that protecting a suspected injury to spineIf fluids collect in the mouth, roll the person on to their side to drainPlace in recovery position if you have to leave to get help
31Swollen, painful, deformed limb Long bones form the upper and lower parts of the limbMuscles, ligaments, and tendons attach to the bones, allowing movement where the bones come together at jointsThere are 4 different types of injuries affecting bones, muscles and joints:Strains and stretching or tearing injuries to muscles or tendonsSprains are tearing injuries to ligaments that hold joints togetherDislocations are the separation of bone ends at a jointFractures are breaks in bonesDifficult to tell the difference—treat all as possible fracturesCommon signs include: swelling, pain and discoloration
32Swollen, painful, deformed limb Expose the injuryCover open woundsNever push a bone back under skinStabilize the limbPlace your hands above and below the injured area to help immobilize the limb.Splinting can reduce pain and prevent further injury but in general it is best to rely on EMS personnel to split.
33Impaled object in the eye Activate EMSDo not allow the person to rub the eyeNever try to remove an embedded objectFor small objects, cover both eyes with loose padsStabilize larger objects with a bulky clean padCover the uninjured eye with a loose padCovering both eyes can be frightening—calm, comfort and reassureRegularly assess until EMS arrives
34Chemicals in the eyeCorrosive chemicals splashed in the eye can quickly damage eye tissueAffected eyes will appear red and wateryTo minimize damage:Immediately flood the eye with large amounts of waterHold the eye open and flush continuously for at least minutesFlush outward from the nose side of the affected eye to prevent contamination of the unaffected eyeHave the person try to remove contact lenses after flushingActivate EMS as quickly as possible
35nosebleed Small blood vessels inside the nostrils are ruptured Have the person sit up straight with their head tilted forward, chin downPinch the nose with your thumb and index finger and hold it for about 10 minutesHave the person spit out any blood that collect in the mouthDo not tilt the head back or have the person lie down.Could swallow blood and vomitIf you cannot stop bleeding seek immediate medical attention
36Injured tooth Control bleeding If the tooth was knocked out: Gently bite down on an absorbent padApplication of ice may help reduce bleeding, swelling and painIt the tooth is still in place, get to the dentist as soon as possibleIf the tooth was knocked out:It can be re-implantedHandle the tooth only by the chewing surface, not the rootGently rinse with water—do not scrubIf possible place it back in the socket, if not keep it moistHave the person spit into a cup and put the tooth in the salivaMilk, contact lens solution, or commercial sports drinks can be usedAvoid using waterGet the person to a dentist, preferably within 30 minutes
37BurnsThe deeper a burn goes into the skin and underlying tissue, the more likely the risk for infectionMinor burnsCool the burn with cool water as soon as possibleContinue cooling until pain is relievedDo not apply ice directly to a cool burnLeave blisters intactCover the burn with a loose sterile pad.Minor burns usually heal without further treatment
38Burns Deep burns Make sure the situation is safe Activate EMS Expose affected areaIf clothing is stuck to the burn do not removeIf present, remove jewelry near the burned areaSeparate fingers or toes with dry, sterile, non-adhesive dressingsDo not apply butter, ointment, lotion, or antisepticLoosely cover burn area with a dry, clean plan or sheetNothing to eat or drinkWhile waiting for EMS, monitor airway for swelling from inhalation of smoke or hot gases.
39Chemical BurnsSome chemicals can react and damage skin on contact. Immediate care is to dilute and remove the chemical quickly to minimize damage.Brush off any dry powder with a gloved hand or clothRemove any contaminated clothingFlood the affected area with large amounts of water, unless the chemical is known to react with waterContinue to flush with water until the burning sensation stopsCover any visible burns loosely with a dry, clean pad and seek medical attention
40Electrical BurnsElectrical burns are caused by contact with electrical wires, current or lightning.Be safe! Turn the power off before touching the affected person.If you cannot make it safe, do not attempt care.An electric shock can cause an abnormal heart rhythm in which the heart stops. Activate EMS, and have someone get an AEDPerform CPR until an AED is readyInternal injury from an electric shock is often more severe than might be suspected. Always seek professional medical care.
41Sudden illness A person suddenly appear weak, ill or in severe pain Sudden onset of fever, headache, and stiff neck or a blood-red or purple rash, especially in children, can indicate the possibility of severe infectionIn many cases the body displays warning signs:Altered mental statusBreathing difficulty or shortness of breathPain, severe pressure, or discomfort in the chestSevere abdominal pain
42Altered mental statusA significant or unusual change in a person’s personality, behavior, or consciousness. It is an indication of change in brain functionRegardless of the cause, altered mental status is a warning sign of a serious problem:Activate EMSPosition the person for comfortCalm and reassure the person as best you canIf the person’s level of responsiveness is or becomes severely diminished, consider placing the person in a recovery position to protect the airwayReassess regularly
43Stroke Blood supply to the brain is suddenly interrupted Most commonly when a blood clot gets caught in a blood vessel.Signs of stroke, but tend to show up suddenlyNumbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg especially on one side of the body, may be presentA person may appear confusedA change in the ability to speak or understandSight and balanceA severe, sudden headacheMay become frustrated—unable to move or communicateActivate EMSCalm, comfort and reassure. Protect the airway— recovery position. Be prepared for the possibility of the need for CPR and AED.Nothing to eat or drink
44Diabetic emergenciesDiabetes is a disease in which the body cannot effectively use sugar for energy.Suspect possibility of diabetic emergency with anyone who has a gradual change in mental statusSkin: pale, cool, and sweatySweet or fruity smell on their breathAsk about medical history and medicationsLook for medical alert bracelet or necklaceDiminished level of responsiveness & difficulty swallowing, activate EMS. Do not give anything to eat or drink.Responsive and able to swallow, give sweet juice, candy, sugar. Do not use anything with artificial sweetener.Calm, comfort, and reassure. If no response within 15 minutes, activate EMS.Insulin is not considered an emergency medication. It is never appropriate to administer insulin to a diabetic person in an emergency setting.
45SeizureSeizures are triggered by excessive electrical activity in the brain. Result in uncontrolled muscle convulsions.Protect the person, but do not restrain. Move object away, allow seizure to take its course.Generally happen without warningJerking movements of the body occur and breathing may seem absent. Can lose control of bowel or bladder and may vomit.Nothing in the mouthActivate EMS if:They were injured during the seizureHave no history of seizureLasts for more than 10 minutesIf response and breathing are absent after seizure, begin CPR and get an AED
46Breathing difficulty, shortness of breath Generally caused by an underlying medical illness such as asthma, allergic reaction, heart failure or lung diseaseBluish-purple tissue color, especially in the lips or fingers, indicates a developing lack of oxygen.Do not wait, activate EMS.If an AED is available, have someone get itAllow the person to be in most comfortable position for breathingLoosen tight clothingCalm, comfort and reassureBe prepared to provide CPR and attach AEDSevere allergic reaction--anaphylaxisBee stingsPeanutsLatexPenicillin
47AsthmaAffects the small air passages in the lungs. Irritants can trigger a reaction that results in narrowed passages due to swelling and the production of mucus. Airflow into and out of the lungs is restrictedAsthma symptoms can vary from mild to life threateningQuick-relief medications that work fast to control asthma symptoms are available. If the person has a prescribed inhaler for asthma, assist them in using it.If they do not improve within minutes, activate EMS
48Metered-dose inhalers Prepare the inhalerRemove the cap on the mouth portShake the inhalerBreathe outHold the inhaler uprightTilt the head back slightlyExhale completelyBreathe inPlace the port of the inhaler in the mouthPress down the inhaler canister to release medicineInhale slowly for 3-5 seconds and then let go of the pressure on the canisterHold breathHold for 10 secondsRepeat as directed by dosage instructions
49Pain, severe pressure, or discomfort in the chest Acute coronary syndromeActivate EMS immediatelyReduced blood flow to the tissues of the heart (heart attack)Shortness of breath, nausea, lightheadednessSkin: pale, cool and sweatyWomen will describe indigestion, weakness or fatigueEncourage person to chew on one non-coated adult or two low-dose baby aspirinDo not encourage if they have an allergy to aspirin, evidence of stroke, or recent bleeding problem.
50Severe Abdominal pain Activate EMS Abdomen may be rigid and tender to the touchPerson may become nauseated and vomitPerson may describe a recent blunt blow to the abdomen or may be pregnantActivate EMSDo not give anything to eat or drink
51Ingested poisonChildren under 6 yrs. account for over half of all poisoningsMost are accidental, while most deaths in adults are intentionalPain meds., personal care products, household cleaning productsEffectsAbdominal pain or cramping, nausea, and vomiting may occurAltered mental statusMay describe the ingestionOpen and empty containers, unusual smells, odd stains on cloths, skin, or lipsActivate EMSCall National Poison Help HotlineDo not induce vomiting, or give water, milk, activate charcoal, or syrup of ipecac unless advised by poison control or EMS
52Inhaled poison Common poisons Carbon monoxideNatural gasSolvent fumesChemical vaporsMay complain of headache, nausea, dizziness and difficulty breathingActivate EMS if displaying any serious signs or symptomsCall National Poison Help HotlineHelp identify the substance
53Bites and stings Snakes Spiders Stinging insects Activate EMS Control bleeding with clean pad and direct pressure. Immobilize limb below heart levelDo not apply local cooling, do not cut through a snakebite, apply suction or use a tourniquetSpidersActivate EMS if you suspect a severe reaction from a spider biteStinging insectsDefensiveRemove stingerMonitor for at least 30 minutesActivate EMS for severe reaction. Assist with epinephrine
54Bites and stings Ticks Marine animal stings Human and animal bites Exposure and transmission of infectious diseasesTo remove grasp with tweezers close to the skin. Pull straight up with a steady, slow motion.If portions remain in the skin, seek further medical attentionDo not use fingernail polish, petroleum jelly, hot match, or alcohol to removeMarine animal stingsDifficulty breathing, hear palpitations, weakness, faintingWash with household vinegar—deactivate venomReduce pain with hot water for at least 20 minutes longer for stingray barb injected venomActivate EMSHuman and animal bitesBacterial infectionRabiesControl bleeding with direct pressure, wash with large amount of waterSeek professional medical attention
55Heat exhaustionIncreased internal temperature and excessive loss of fluids to the environment.Signs: heavy sweating, pale, cool skin. May become nauseated and vomit. May complain of headache or dizziness and feel weak.Move to a cooler placeLoosen clothingHave the person lie down and raise their legsSpray water or apply cool, wet cloths to head and torsoUse a fan to speed evaporationDrink cool fluids, preferably sports drink with carbohydrates and electrolytesIf person does not improve activate EMS
56Heat stroke Life-threatening Signs: Activate EMS immediately Can permanently damage organs, including brain and spinal cordSigns:Altered mental statusSkin can be red, very warm/hot, and completely dryHeavy sweatingMay collapse and have a seizureActivate EMS immediatelySpray or pour water on the victimApply ice packs to neck, groin and armpitsCover in a wet sheet, fan themBest method is to immerse in cool water up to neckIf unresponsive, use recovery position to protect the airway.Do not force them to drink fluids
57Hypothermia 95 degrees or less Cardiac arrestPale, cold skinUncontrollable shiveringLoss of coordinationDifficulty speakingAltered mental statusRemove wet clothing, cover with something warm (not hot)Cover head and neckActivate EMS and get an AEDPrepare to perform CPR and use AED
58frostbiteFrozen skinMinor can be rewarmed using skin to skin contactSerious: remove wet clothing, if available activate EMSRemove jewelryPlace clean pads between frostbitten fingers and toesWrap affected area in clean towel or padDo not rub or massageNever give them alcoholIf far away from medical care and no chance of refreezingImmerse area in warm (not hot) water for minutes. Check and maintain water temperatureSevere burning pain, swelling, blistering and color changes may occurDo not let person use affected part after thawed.Get professional medical care as soon as you can
59Emergency moves It is best not to move, unless in clear danger Danger of making a spinal injury worseMost effective is a dragPull in the direction of the long axis of the body to keep spine in lineNever pull on the head, or pull body sidewaysCommon drags:Extremity drag, grasping and pulling ankles and forearmsClothing drag, pulling on a person’s shirt in the neck or should areaBlanket drag, rolling a person onto a blanket and dragging the blanketUse your legsAvoid twistingConsider their weightKnow your physical ability and accept limitationsVehicle fires are rare, avoid moving an injured person from a damaged vehicle unless you believe their life is clearly in danger
60Emotional consideration Caring for someone in an emergency can create emotional distress. More serious problems or relationships with those involved can intensify these feelings. Common reactions:Anxiety, trembling, sweating, nausea, pounding heartbeatThese are all normal human reactions to a traumatic event. Just remember to stay calm.When an emergency is over, a provider is often left alone. With little time for closure, a provider can begin to experience a variety of reactions:Feeling abandoned or helpless, self-doubt, difficulty sleeping, recalling the event over and over, etc.These feelings are normal and should pass with time. To help cope you can:Get back to a normal routine, accept it will take time to resolve these emotions, or talk to someone you trust like a friend or a counselor.