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B ASIC F IRST A ID OSHA defines first aid as, “emergency care provided for injury or sudden illness before professional emergency medical treatment becomes.

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Presentation on theme: "B ASIC F IRST A ID OSHA defines first aid as, “emergency care provided for injury or sudden illness before professional emergency medical treatment becomes."— Presentation transcript:

1 B ASIC F IRST A ID OSHA defines first aid as, “emergency care provided for injury or sudden illness before professional emergency medical treatment becomes available.” Goal: Knowledge & Confidence

2 F IRST AID PROVIDER At work, injuries and illnesses kill about 2.2 million people in the world each year. Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death in the United States for individuals younger than 44 years of age. In the U.S., about 1/3 of all injuries and 20% of injury deaths occur at home. For every home injury death there are about 650 nonfatal home injuries. The essential responsibilities of a first aid provider are: Recognizing a medical emergency Making the decision to help Identifying hazards and ensuring personal safety Activating EMS Providing supportive basic first aid care

3 L EGAL C ONSIDERATIONS All states have passed “Good Samaritan laws” to help encourage bystanders to assist those in need. These laws protect anyone who: Voluntarily provides assistance, without expecting or accepting compensation Is reasonable and prudent Does not provide care beyond the training received Is not “grossly negligent,” or completely careless, in delivering emergency care Good Samaritan Laws vary slightly from state-to-state Be familiar with the laws in your state Everyone has a right to refuse medical treatment- Always ask a responsive person if they want help before providing care. When a person is or becomes unresponsive, the legal concept of “implied consent” allows a provider to help without asking. It assumes the person would agree to be helped if responsive.

4 L EGAL CONSIDERATION CONT. If parent or guardian is present, obtain the parent or guardian’s consent prior to giving care. When one is not present, the consent is implied. Provide care and contact a parent or guardian as soon as reasonably possible. There has never been a successful lawsuit in the US against a person providing first aid in good faith. Activate EMS immediately If the scene is unsafe, do not enter Never attempt skills that exceed provider training Once care has begun, and it is safe to do so, remain with the ill or injured person until someone with equal or greater emergency medical training takes over.

5 R ECOGNIZING AN EMERGENCY AND DECIDING TO HELP The most critical decision a provider will make is whether to get involved when a medical emergency has occurred. Reasons you might be hesitant: You feel like you’re alone in helping Making things worse Training provides you with knowledge and skills designed only to help—and not harm– those in need. You think you don’t have a lot of medical knowledge Not necessary, First Aid skills are based on effective procedures that can be easily learned and safely applied. Others have already stopped to help It never hurts to see if any additional assistance is needed.

6 P ERSONAL SAFETY Emergency scenes are often unsafe Provider’s personal safety is always the highest priority, even before the safety of an ill or injured person Always pause before approaching an emergency and look for obvious hazards. If unsafe, do not approach If the location you’re in is unsafe, get out When caring for someone, a provider can be exposed to blood or other potentially infectious body fluids. While the risk of contracting a disease is extremely low, it is prudent to take simple measures to avoid exposure

7 P ERSONAL SAFETY CONT. Infectious blood borne diseases include the following: Hepatitis B Hepatitis C HIV, the virus that causes AIDS Exposure can occur through the direct contact with infectious material such as: Through an open wound or sore Through the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, and eyes Through a skin puncture with a contaminated, sharp object Reducing exposure lowers the chance of infection

8 P ERSONAL SAFETY CONT. “Universal Precautions” is an approach that recommends handling all blood and other body substances as if they are infectious. To be effective, the approach is the same for everyone, regardless of age or relationship. Disposable gloves are the most commonly used barrier. Inspect gloves for damage or tears before use If damaged replace immediately Remove contaminated gloves properly Use a shield or CPR mask for rescue breaths A provider may choose to not use barriers, depending on relationship to the person and knowledge of the person’s health status. If a provider doesn’t have personal protective equipment, you may choose to improvise. Towel, plastic bag, anything that can help avoid direct contact

9 E MERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES ( EMS ) An EMS system typically uses specialized emergency communication to gather information and dispatch appropriate emergency resources. One of the fundamental responsibilities of a trained provider is to activate the EMS system in an emergency, Immediate activation of EMS recommended when: A person is unresponsive A significant mechanism of injury has occurred A warning sign of serious illness exists The severity of a person’s condition is unclear EMS providers: Respond directly to emergency scenes Provide emergency medical care Transport ill or injured people to a hospital Activating EMS—calling a universal emergency telephone number, such as 911.

10 E MERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES CONT. Ideally, one person should call EMS while another person cares for the ill or injured person. EMS dispatcher will ask for basic info: Type of emergency Location The number and conditions of those who are ill or injured What care is being provided Answer the dispatcher’s questions as clearly as possible. Only hang up if directed to do so by the dispatcher. There may be an Emergency Action Plan in the workplace that consists of specific procedures on how to respond to internal emergencies and activate EMS. Majority of medical emergencies occur at home, so it is also smart to develop a personal emergency response plan for your home and review it frequently with members of your household.

11 P RIMARY ASSESSMENT — UNRESPONSIVE PERSON The primary assessment helps a provider assess for immediate life-threatening problems, activate the EMS system, and rapidly provide priority care. Follow this Skill Guide for Primary Assessment of an Unresponsive Person. Assess the Scene Check for Response Activate EMS and get an AED Look for normal breathing Provide indicated care If breathing—recovery position Not breathing—CPR Use AED as soon as it is available

12 P RIMARY ASSESSMENT — UNRESPONSIVE PERSON If you see an adult collapse and find she is unresponsive and not breathing, or only gasping, the immediate application of continuous compression to the chest and use of an AED could significantly increase the person’s chance of surviving. Compression-only CPR is a simpler, but limited, alternative to standard CPR, which combines compressions and rescue breaths. As a first aid provider, it is highly recommended for you to receive additional training in standard CPR.

13 U NRESPONSIVE AND BREATHING – RECOVERY POSITION Even if a person is breathing normally, a lack of responsiveness is still considered to be a life- threatening condition that requires immediate care. There are a variety of things that can result in unresponsiveness: Medical conditions External factors such as alcohol or drug overdose Regardless of cause, the greatest treatment concern is the ability of the person to maintain a clear and open airway. Positioning an uninjured, unresponsive person in the recovery position can help maintain and protect the airway. Uses gravity to drain fluids from the mouth and keep the tongue from blocking the airway.

14 P RIMARY ASSESSMENT – RESPONSIVE PERSON Just as with an unresponsive person, the primary assessment for someone who is responsive is to assess for and immediately treat life-threatening problems, including bleeding and shock. Follow this Skill Guide for Primary Assessment of a Responsive Person: Assess the Scene Introduce yourself Check for bleeding Check for tissue color and body temperature Activate EMS

15 P RIMARY ASSESSMENT – RESPONSIVE PERSON Tissue color depends on the amount of blood circulating below the skin. Normal tissue color is light pink Paleness can indicate blood loss or shock A bluish color can indicate lack of oxygen Normal skin feels warm and dry. Cool, wet skin can be an indication of shock. Emergencies are dynamic events that can change at any time. Reassessment is the ongoing observation of an ill or injured person to monitor his or her condition and the effectiveness of first aid.

16 P RIMARY ASSESSMENT – RESPONSIVE PERSON Make sure the situation remains safe for you to be there. Watch for changes in a person’s level of responsiveness. Ensure the airway is open and clear and that the person is breathing normally. Reassess to ensure external bleeding is controlled. Look for changes in the person’s tissue color or skin temperature. Check at regular intervals until another provider or EMS personnel takes over.

17 S ECONDARY ASSESSMENT When a primary indicates no life- threatening problems, complete a secondary assessment to gather additional information. Follow this Skill Guide for Secondary Assessment: Determine the person’s chief complaint Look Around. Mechanisms of force that caused the injury may help predict the presence of a hidden injury. Clues in the environment Look at the person Briefly assess the person from head to toe. Look and feel for signs of injury and illness

18 S ECONDARY ASSESSMENT Remember DOTS: Deformities Open injuries Tenderness Swelling If needed, remove or cut away clothing to get a better look at an affected body part. Compare one side of the body to the other. If at any time you suspect spinal injury, immediately provide spinal motion restriction by manually stabilizing the head.

19 S ECONDARY ASSESSMENT Ask questions Symptoms- Things the person is feeling, such as pain, nausea, dizziness, or anything related to the situation Allergies- Things the person may be allergic to Medications- prescribed or is taking Past Medical history- problems that may be related to what’s going on Last oral intake- when the person last ate or drank Events leading up to problem- what the person was doing just prior to the problem If you find or begin to suspect a life-threatening problem is occurring while performing a secondary assessment, immediately stop, activate EMS, and provide primary care

20 C ONTROL OF BLEEDING Bleeding reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood. If heavy or uncontrolled, bleeding can quickly become life-threatening. Arterial bleeding is bright red and will often spurt from a wound If the blood is dark red and flowing steady, it is likely coming from a damaged vein. Activate EMS for any heavy bleeding. Bleeding exposes the provider to potentially infectious body fluids Always use protective barriers Continuous firm and direct pressure applied to a wound is the best method for controlling external bleeding

21 C ONTROL OF BLEEDING Follow this Skill Guide for Control of Bleeding Apply direct pressure Clean, absorbent pad. Apply pressure with the flats of the fingers directly on the point of bleeding. Apply a pressure bandage Wrap roller gauze or elastic bandage around limb or over injury for continuous pressure. If bleeding continues, follow these steps If blood soaks through pad, apply another pad, leave the initial pad. Apply more pressure with the palm of the hand Manage shock If the person has no difficulty breathing, lay person flat on ground Maintain normal body temperature, do not overheat Give nothing to eat or drink, even if they ask Keep the person comfortable and calm

22 I NTERNAL BLEEDING A significant blow can create injury and bleeding inside the body. This is especially true for organs in the chest and abdomen. Internal bleeding can be difficult to detect. Signs of shock may be the earliest indication that internal bleeding is occurring. Suspect it if the chest or abdomen is hit hard. Surgery may be the only way to control internal bleeding Early suspicion and activation of EMS is critical for effective treatment, and possibly survival

23 M ANAGING SHOCK Shock develops when poor blood flow creates a shortage of oxygen to body tissues. Any serious illness or injury has the potential to cause shock. Shock is progressive, early signs can be difficult to detect. A person may appear uneasy, restless, or worried. Responsiveness may diminish The skin may become pale, cool, and sweaty A person in shock must get to the hospital as soon as possible in order to survive To limit the effects of shock: Ensure an open and secure airway, normal breathing and control any external bleeding

24 M ANAGING SHOCK Maintain body temperature If you suspect head or back injury, do not move the person, tuck the blanket underneath as much as possible. Give nothing to eat or drink Reassess regularly until EMS take over

25 AMPUTATION Amputation is the complete loss of a body part If an amputation has occurred, quickly: Assess for and control any severe bleeding Activate EMS Calm, comfort, and reassure the person Reassess regularly until another provider or EMS take over Amputated body parts can often be surgically reattached. Once the person is stable, locate the severed part Wrap it in sterile or clean cloth Place the part in a tightly sealed plastic bag or waterproof container Place the bag or container on ice Do not soak the severed part in water, do not put it directly on ice. Give it to EMS providers for transport with the person to the hospital

26 I MPALED OBJECT An object that penetrates the body and remains embedded. As a general rule, never remove an impaled object. It can act like a plug and prevent serious blood loss. If you suspect impalement has occurred, remove or cut away clothing to confirm the object has penetrated the skin. Look for any serious bleeding. Keep the person still to prevent movement Use a clean pad to apply direct pressure around the base of the object, if the injury is bleeding. Use additional padding to stabilize the object Activate EMS for any significant impaled object or if in doubt about its severity Treat for shock

27 O PEN CHEST INJURY A puncture injury through the chest wall can disrupt the chest’s ability to draw air into the lungs If the provider suspects an injury has penetrated the chest wall, remove clothing to expose the injury site Check for exit injury on the other side If there are two wounds treat the more serious one first Air movement through the wound can be indicated by foamy, bloody air bubbles. Quickly cover with something airtight only on 3 sides, to allow for trapped air to escape, secure with tape if available Activate EMS Allow the person to assume a position that is comfortable for them Regularly reassess

28 O PEN ABDOMINAL INJURY Injury to the abdomen may result in “evisceration,” a condition in which abdominal organs protrude through an open wound Protect them from further injury If an open abdominal injury occurs: Activate EMS Cover any protruding organs with a thick, moist dressing Do not apply direct pressure on the wound or exposed internal parts Treat for shock Regularly assess until EMS takes over

29 H EAD, NECK, OR BACK INJURY Temporary or permanent paralysis Confusion, and disorientation Instruct responsive person to remain still Ask about the injury Look for obvious injury Ask about numbness, tingling, burning, or loss of sensation Priority is to help prevent further injury and use spinal motion restriction Make sure scene is safe Encourage the person not to move Have a bystander activate EMS

30 S PINAL MOTION RESTRICTION Stabilize the head Get into a comfortable position behind the person Cup your hands on both sides of the persons head, without covering ears– do not stop the flow of fluid from ears or nose Keep the head, neck and spine in line. Minimize motion Comfort, calm, and reassure the person Distress and discomfort may make it difficult to restrict spinal motion in a child. Try your best to hold the head in the position in which it was found Protect the airway Establishing and maintaining an airway for an unresponsive person is a higher priority that protecting a suspected injury to spine If fluids collect in the mouth, roll the person on to their side to drain Place in recovery position if you have to leave to get help

31 S WOLLEN, PAINFUL, DEFORMED LIMB Long bones form the upper and lower parts of the limb Muscles, ligaments, and tendons attach to the bones, allowing movement where the bones come together at joints There are 4 different types of injuries affecting bones, muscles and joints: Strains and stretching or tearing injuries to muscles or tendons Sprains are tearing injuries to ligaments that hold joints together Dislocations are the separation of bone ends at a joint Fractures are breaks in bones Difficult to tell the difference—treat all as possible fractures Common signs include: swelling, pain and discoloration

32 S WOLLEN, PAINFUL, DEFORMED LIMB Expose the injury Cover open wounds Never push a bone back under skin Stabilize the limb Place your hands above and below the injured area to help immobilize the limb. Splinting can reduce pain and prevent further injury but in general it is best to rely on EMS personnel to split.

33 I MPALED OBJECT IN THE EYE Activate EMS Do not allow the person to rub the eye Never try to remove an embedded object For small objects, cover both eyes with loose pads Stabilize larger objects with a bulky clean pad Cover the uninjured eye with a loose pad Covering both eyes can be frightening—calm, comfort and reassure Regularly assess until EMS arrives

34 C HEMICALS IN THE EYE Corrosive chemicals splashed in the eye can quickly damage eye tissue Affected eyes will appear red and watery To minimize damage: Immediately flood the eye with large amounts of water Hold the eye open and flush continuously for at least 15-30 minutes Flush outward from the nose side of the affected eye to prevent contamination of the unaffected eye Have the person try to remove contact lenses after flushing Activate EMS as quickly as possible

35 NOSEBLEED Small blood vessels inside the nostrils are ruptured Have the person sit up straight with their head tilted forward, chin down Pinch the nose with your thumb and index finger and hold it for about 10 minutes Have the person spit out any blood that collect in the mouth Do not tilt the head back or have the person lie down. Could swallow blood and vomit If you cannot stop bleeding seek immediate medical attention

36 I NJURED TOOTH Control bleeding Gently bite down on an absorbent pad Application of ice may help reduce bleeding, swelling and pain It the tooth is still in place, get to the dentist as soon as possible If the tooth was knocked out: It can be re-implanted Handle the tooth only by the chewing surface, not the root Gently rinse with water—do not scrub If possible place it back in the socket, if not keep it moist Have the person spit into a cup and put the tooth in the saliva Milk, contact lens solution, or commercial sports drinks can be used Avoid using water Get the person to a dentist, preferably within 30 minutes

37 B URNS The deeper a burn goes into the skin and underlying tissue, the more likely the risk for infection Minor burns Cool the burn with cool water as soon as possible Continue cooling until pain is relieved Do not apply ice directly to a cool burn Leave blisters intact Cover the burn with a loose sterile pad. Minor burns usually heal without further treatment

38 B URNS Deep burns Make sure the situation is safe Activate EMS Expose affected area If clothing is stuck to the burn do not remove If present, remove jewelry near the burned area Separate fingers or toes with dry, sterile, non- adhesive dressings Do not apply butter, ointment, lotion, or antiseptic Loosely cover burn area with a dry, clean plan or sheet Nothing to eat or drink While waiting for EMS, monitor airway for swelling from inhalation of smoke or hot gases.

39 C HEMICAL B URNS Some chemicals can react and damage skin on contact. Immediate care is to dilute and remove the chemical quickly to minimize damage. Brush off any dry powder with a gloved hand or cloth Remove any contaminated clothing Flood the affected area with large amounts of water, unless the chemical is known to react with water Continue to flush with water until the burning sensation stops Cover any visible burns loosely with a dry, clean pad and seek medical attention

40 E LECTRICAL B URNS Electrical burns are caused by contact with electrical wires, current or lightning. Be safe! Turn the power off before touching the affected person. If you cannot make it safe, do not attempt care. An electric shock can cause an abnormal heart rhythm in which the heart stops. Activate EMS, and have someone get an AED Perform CPR until an AED is ready Internal injury from an electric shock is often more severe than might be suspected. Always seek professional medical care.

41 S UDDEN ILLNESS A person suddenly appear weak, ill or in severe pain Sudden onset of fever, headache, and stiff neck or a blood-red or purple rash, especially in children, can indicate the possibility of severe infection In many cases the body displays warning signs: Altered mental status Breathing difficulty or shortness of breath Pain, severe pressure, or discomfort in the chest Severe abdominal pain

42 A LTERED MENTAL STATUS A significant or unusual change in a person’s personality, behavior, or consciousness. It is an indication of change in brain function Regardless of the cause, altered mental status is a warning sign of a serious problem: Activate EMS Position the person for comfort Calm and reassure the person as best you can If the person’s level of responsiveness is or becomes severely diminished, consider placing the person in a recovery position to protect the airway Reassess regularly

43 S TROKE Blood supply to the brain is suddenly interrupted Most commonly when a blood clot gets caught in a blood vessel. Signs of stroke, but tend to show up suddenly Numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg especially on one side of the body, may be present A person may appear confused A change in the ability to speak or understand Sight and balance A severe, sudden headache May become frustrated—unable to move or communicate Activate EMS Calm, comfort and reassure. Protect the airway— recovery position. Be prepared for the possibility of the need for CPR and AED. Nothing to eat or drink

44 D IABETIC EMERGENCIES Diabetes is a disease in which the body cannot effectively use sugar for energy. Suspect possibility of diabetic emergency with anyone who has a gradual change in mental status Skin: pale, cool, and sweaty Sweet or fruity smell on their breath Ask about medical history and medications Look for medical alert bracelet or necklace Diminished level of responsiveness & difficulty swallowing, activate EMS. Do not give anything to eat or drink. Responsive and able to swallow, give sweet juice, candy, sugar. Do not use anything with artificial sweetener. Calm, comfort, and reassure. If no response within 15 minutes, activate EMS. Insulin is not considered an emergency medication. It is never appropriate to administer insulin to a diabetic person in an emergency setting.

45 S EIZURE Seizures are triggered by excessive electrical activity in the brain. Result in uncontrolled muscle convulsions. Protect the person, but do not restrain. Move object away, allow seizure to take its course. Generally happen without warning Jerking movements of the body occur and breathing may seem absent. Can lose control of bowel or bladder and may vomit. Nothing in the mouth Activate EMS if: They were injured during the seizure Have no history of seizure Lasts for more than 10 minutes If response and breathing are absent after seizure, begin CPR and get an AED

46 B REATHING DIFFICULTY, SHORTNESS OF BREATH Generally caused by an underlying medical illness such as asthma, allergic reaction, heart failure or lung disease Bluish-purple tissue color, especially in the lips or fingers, indicates a developing lack of oxygen. Do not wait, activate EMS. If an AED is available, have someone get it Allow the person to be in most comfortable position for breathing Loosen tight clothing Calm, comfort and reassure Be prepared to provide CPR and attach AED Severe allergic reaction--anaphylaxis Bee stings Peanuts Latex Penicillin

47 A STHMA Affects the small air passages in the lungs. Irritants can trigger a reaction that results in narrowed passages due to swelling and the production of mucus. Airflow into and out of the lungs is restricted Asthma symptoms can vary from mild to life threatening Quick-relief medications that work fast to control asthma symptoms are available. If the person has a prescribed inhaler for asthma, assist them in using it. If they do not improve within 15-20 minutes, activate EMS

48 M ETERED - DOSE INHALERS Prepare the inhaler Remove the cap on the mouth port Shake the inhaler Breathe out Hold the inhaler upright Tilt the head back slightly Exhale completely Breathe in Place the port of the inhaler in the mouth Press down the inhaler canister to release medicine Inhale slowly for 3-5 seconds and then let go of the pressure on the canister Hold breath Hold for 10 seconds Repeat as directed by dosage instructions

49 P AIN, SEVERE PRESSURE, OR DISCOMFORT IN THE CHEST Acute coronary syndrome Activate EMS immediately Reduced blood flow to the tissues of the heart (heart attack) Shortness of breath, nausea, lightheadedness Skin: pale, cool and sweaty Women will describe indigestion, weakness or fatigue Encourage person to chew on one non-coated adult or two low-dose baby aspirin Do not encourage if they have an allergy to aspirin, evidence of stroke, or recent bleeding problem.

50 S EVERE A BDOMINAL PAIN Abdomen may be rigid and tender to the touch Person may become nauseated and vomit Person may describe a recent blunt blow to the abdomen or may be pregnant Activate EMS Do not give anything to eat or drink

51 I NGESTED POISON Children under 6 yrs. account for over half of all poisonings Most are accidental, while most deaths in adults are intentional Pain meds., personal care products, household cleaning products Effects Abdominal pain or cramping, nausea, and vomiting may occur Altered mental status May describe the ingestion Open and empty containers, unusual smells, odd stains on cloths, skin, or lips Activate EMS Call National Poison Help Hotline Do not induce vomiting, or give water, milk, activate charcoal, or syrup of ipecac unless advised by poison control or EMS

52 I NHALED POISON Common poisons Carbon monoxide Natural gas Solvent fumes Chemical vapors May complain of headache, nausea, dizziness and difficulty breathing Activate EMS if displaying any serious signs or symptoms Call National Poison Help Hotline Help identify the substance

53 B ITES AND STINGS Snakes Activate EMS Control bleeding with clean pad and direct pressure. Immobilize limb below heart level Do not apply local cooling, do not cut through a snakebite, apply suction or use a tourniquet Spiders Activate EMS if you suspect a severe reaction from a spider bite Stinging insects Defensive Remove stinger Monitor for at least 30 minutes Activate EMS for severe reaction. Assist with epinephrine

54 B ITES AND STINGS Ticks Exposure and transmission of infectious diseases To remove grasp with tweezers close to the skin. Pull straight up with a steady, slow motion. If portions remain in the skin, seek further medical attention Do not use fingernail polish, petroleum jelly, hot match, or alcohol to remove Marine animal stings Difficulty breathing, hear palpitations, weakness, fainting Wash with household vinegar—deactivate venom Reduce pain with hot water for at least 20 minutes longer for stingray barb injected venom Activate EMS Human and animal bites Bacterial infection Rabies Control bleeding with direct pressure, wash with large amount of water Seek professional medical attention

55 H EAT EXHAUSTION Increased internal temperature and excessive loss of fluids to the environment. Signs: heavy sweating, pale, cool skin. May become nauseated and vomit. May complain of headache or dizziness and feel weak. Move to a cooler place Loosen clothing Have the person lie down and raise their legs Spray water or apply cool, wet cloths to head and torso Use a fan to speed evaporation Drink cool fluids, preferably sports drink with carbohydrates and electrolytes If person does not improve activate EMS

56 H EAT STROKE Life-threatening Can permanently damage organs, including brain and spinal cord Signs: Altered mental status Skin can be red, very warm/hot, and completely dry Heavy sweating May collapse and have a seizure Activate EMS immediately Spray or pour water on the victim Apply ice packs to neck, groin and armpits Cover in a wet sheet, fan them Best method is to immerse in cool water up to neck If unresponsive, use recovery position to protect the airway. Do not force them to drink fluids

57 H YPOTHERMIA 95 degrees or less Cardiac arrest Pale, cold skin Uncontrollable shivering Loss of coordination Difficulty speaking Altered mental status Remove wet clothing, cover with something warm (not hot) Cover head and neck Activate EMS and get an AED Prepare to perform CPR and use AED

58 FROSTBITE Frozen skin Minor can be rewarmed using skin to skin contact Serious: remove wet clothing, if available activate EMS Remove jewelry Place clean pads between frostbitten fingers and toes Wrap affected area in clean towel or pad Do not rub or massage Never give them alcohol If far away from medical care and no chance of refreezing Immerse area in warm (not hot) water for 20-30 minutes. Check and maintain water temperature Severe burning pain, swelling, blistering and color changes may occur Do not let person use affected part after thawed. Get professional medical care as soon as you can

59 E MERGENCY MOVES It is best not to move, unless in clear danger Danger of making a spinal injury worse Most effective is a drag Pull in the direction of the long axis of the body to keep spine in line Never pull on the head, or pull body sideways Common drags: Extremity drag, grasping and pulling ankles and forearms Clothing drag, pulling on a person’s shirt in the neck or should area Blanket drag, rolling a person onto a blanket and dragging the blanket Use your legs Avoid twisting Consider their weight Know your physical ability and accept limitations Vehicle fires are rare, avoid moving an injured person from a damaged vehicle unless you believe their life is clearly in danger

60 E MOTIONAL CONSIDERATION Caring for someone in an emergency can create emotional distress. More serious problems or relationships with those involved can intensify these feelings. Common reactions: Anxiety, trembling, sweating, nausea, pounding heartbeat These are all normal human reactions to a traumatic event. Just remember to stay calm. When an emergency is over, a provider is often left alone. With little time for closure, a provider can begin to experience a variety of reactions: Feeling abandoned or helpless, self-doubt, difficulty sleeping, recalling the event over and over, etc. These feelings are normal and should pass with time. To help cope you can: Get back to a normal routine, accept it will take time to resolve these emotions, or talk to someone you trust like a friend or a counselor.


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