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THE UNIFIED AIRWAY A CPMC Regional CME Event - An Integrated Approach Saturday October 1, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "THE UNIFIED AIRWAY A CPMC Regional CME Event - An Integrated Approach Saturday October 1, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE UNIFIED AIRWAY A CPMC Regional CME Event - An Integrated Approach Saturday October 1, 2011

2 ASTHMA MANAGEMENT: HOW TO INITIATE, MAINTAIN, AND TAPER THERAPIES Benson Chen, MD San Francisco Critical Care Medical Group 2

3 Disclosures Own stock in Pfizer and Eli-Lilly 3

4 SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM 4

5 OUTLINE OF DISCUSSION Asthma Presentation and Work-up Treatment Paradigm Pearls 5

6 Presenting Symptoms Atypical chest pain / pressure Dyspnea at rest or with exertion Cough Inability to take a deep breath Wheezing 6

7 ASTHMA – DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Other Conditions that Present Like Asthma Congestive heart failure - Pulmonary hypertension Vocal cord dysfunction / laryngeal asthma Intra-thoracic endotracheal mass or stenosis - Lymphoma - Tracheomalacia 7

8 Asthma - Evaluation Detailed history - Symptoms Cough, dyspnea, chest pain - Frequency and timing of symptoms Diurnal or nocturnal Number of episodes per day, week, month - Positional effect on symptoms May suggest reflux or post-nasal drip exacerbating asthma or as the etiology of symptoms - Environmental change associated with onset of symptoms - Associated symptoms Chest pain, lower extremity edema, weight loss, fevers, night sweats - Smoking history - Substance abuse history - Diet pill use 8

9 Asthma - Evaluation Physical Exam - Vital signs BP, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypoxemia at rest or with exertion - Polyphonic wheezing - Tracheal wheezing / stridor - Jugular venous distention - Prominent P2 - Neck asymmetry / mass - Barrel chest - Lower extremity edema - Digital clubbing - Hypertrophic osteoarthopathy 9

10 Asthma - Evaluation Pulmonary Function Testing - Spirometry - Flow-volume Loop - Lung Volume - DLCO 10

11 Asthma - Evaluation CXR – if history and physical are suggesting alternative diagnoses - Evidence of hyperinflation Increased retrosternal space Flattened diaphragms on lateral view - Interstitial markings - Cystic or bullous lung disease - Cardiomegaly - Pleural effusion - Mediastinal and or hilar adenopathy 11

12 Initiating Treatment - Goals Maximize symptom control Minimize side effects of treatment Minimize unnecessary administration of medication Minimize need for systemic steroids 12

13 Initiating Treatment – Severity Assessment Determine severity of symptoms objectively - Symptoms Dyspnea, exertional limitation, wheezing, cough, nocturnal awakenings - Frequency of symptoms Daily vs. weekly vs monthly 13

14 Initiating Treatment – Extrinsic Trigger Assessment Assess for potential environmental allergens - Dust - Mold / mildew - Pet exposures - Strong scents/fumes Perfume, cologne, deodorant, soap, shampoo, laundry detergent - Smoke Tobacco, incense, fireplace - Bedding - Carpeting 14

15 Initiating Treatment – Intrinsic Trigger Assessment To consider assessing for potential intrinsic pro- inflammatory conditions - Indolent infections Atypical mycobacteria, fungal - Airway fungal colonization ABPA - Parasitic infections - IgE elevation - Churg Strauss - Hypereosinophilia syndrome 15

16 Initiation of Treatment – Step Up Approach Stepping Up - Benefits Avoids over treatment Avoids potential side-effects related to unnecessary therapies Avoids potentially unnecessary exposure to LABA Avoids potential long-term over-treatment - Drawbacks Requires frequent contact with patient in the office or by phone to monitor adequacy of treatment response May delay alternative diagnostics / diagnoses if symptoms are not related to asthma May delay complete relief of symptoms 16

17 Stepping Up - Initial therapy dependent upon severity of patient’s presenting symptoms Intermittent - Asymptomatic between episodes - Symptoms < 2 days/week - Nighttime awakenings < twice/month - No limitation in normal activities Mild Persistent - Symptoms > 2 days/week but not daily - Nighttime awakenings 3 – 4 times/month - Minor limitation in normal activities Moderate Persistent - Daily symptoms - Nighttime awakenings > once per week but not nightly - Some limitation in normal activities Severe Persistent - Symptoms throughout day - Nighttime awakenings almost or nightly - Extreme limitation in normal activities 17

18 Stepping Up – Initial treatment recommendations Intermittent - SABA (short acting beta agonist, e.g. albuterol) prn Mild persistent - Low dose inhaled steroid Moderate persistent - Low dose inhaled steroid + LABA (long acting beta agonist, e.g. salmeterol) - Medium dose inhaled steroid Severe persistent - Medium dose inhaled steroid + LABA - High dose inhaled steroid + LABA 18

19 Treatment Follow-Up: Reassessment Reassess response to treatment in 2 to 6 weeks Adjust medication regimen accordingly - Step up or down with goal of achieving symptom level of “Intermittent Asthma” on the fewest medications and at the lowest doses tolerated - Step down once symptoms have been under control for at least 3 months 19

20 Additional Treatment Considerations Non-pharmaceutical interventions - Extrinsic allergen control Hypoallergenic bedding Dust mite cover for mattress Pet removal Smoking cessation - Intrinsic immunostimulatory control Evaluating for atypical mycobacterial infections Evaluating for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or other fungal colonizing agents 20

21 Additional Treatment Considerations Additional pharmaceutical interventions - Omalizumab Monoclonal IgG antibody that inhibits IgE binding to receptors on mast cells and basophils Alternative agent in patients with severe persistent asthma and evidence of an extrinsic allergic component – dust mites, cockroaches, dogs, cats - Leukotriene antagonists Cough variant asthma Asthma with allergic rhinitis Alternative agent in patients with mild, moderate, or severe persistent asthma 21

22 PEARLS “Wheezing is not always asthma” Asthma management is more than just inhalers - Identify and address potential environmental triggers - Identify and address potential intrinsic triggers Medical management of asthma - Risk stratify to determine initial treatment - Step-up treatment - Be willing to step-down therapy 22

23 TAKE HOME POINTS ENVIRONMENT RISK STRATIFY REASSESS STEP-UP STEP-DOWN 23


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