Presentation on theme: "The central focus of any essay"— Presentation transcript:
1The central focus of any essay Thesis StatementsThe central focus of any essay
2What is a Thesis Statement? A single, focused sentence that reveals the argument or subject of your essay.Is usually somewhere in your first paragraph, and presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation.Your thesis statement should be specific—it should cover only what you will discuss in your paper and should be supported with specific evidence.Directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel.Makes a claim that others might dispute.
3What is a Thesis Statement? A thesis acts as a rudder for your essay. If the thesis is not clearly developed or constantly monitored, your essay will wander off course.The thesis is as helpful to you (the author) as it is to your audience. If you have a clearly developed thesis, your essay won’t get away from you.
4How do I create a thesis?A thesis is the result of a lengthy thinking process. Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after reading an essay assignment. Before you develop an argument on any topic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look for possible relationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts or similarities), and think about the significance of these relationships. Once you do this thinking, you will probably have a "working thesis," a basic or main idea, an argument that you think you can support with evidence but that may need adjustment along the way.
5Steps toward Generating a Thesis Research, read, and think.Examine the essay prompt or assignment and begin formulating thoughts based on that.Gather information from a variety of resources.Talk to others about your subject.Simply begin the thinking process and try to come to conclusions.
6Steps toward Generating a Thesis Determine what kind of paper you are writing:An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience.An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience.An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.
7Analytical Essays: Break down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience.Example of an analytical thesis statement:The paper that follows should:An analysis of the college admission process reveals one challenge facing counselors: accepting students with high test scores or students with strong extracurricular backgrounds.Explain and evaluate the college admission processDiscuss the challenge facing admissions counselors
8Expository Essays: Explains something to the audience. Example of an expository (explanatory) thesis statement:The paper that follows should:The life of the typical college student is characterized by time spent studying, attending class, and socializing with peers.explain how students spend their time studying, attending class, and socializing with peers
9Argumentative Essays: makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The goal is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.Example of an argumentative thesis statement:The paper that follows should:High school graduates should be required to take a year off to pursue community service projects before entering college in order to increase their maturity and global awareness.Present an argument and give evidence to support the claim that students should pursue community projects before entering college
10Other Tips for Creating A Thesis If the essay topic is assigned, try this:Almost all assignments, no matter how complicated, can be reduced to a single question. Your first step, then, is to distill the assignment into a specific question. For example, if your assignment is, “Write a report to the local school board explaining the potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class,” turn the request into a question like, “What are the potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class?” After you’ve chosen the question your essay will answer, compose one or two complete sentences answering that question.Q: “What are the potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class?”A: “The potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class are . . .”ORA: “Using computers in a fourth-grade class promises to improve . . .”The answer to the question is the thesis statement for the essay.
11Other Tips for Creating A Thesis Or try this:Write out the main idea from your paper (the point you want the reader to get) in 25 or fewer words:Now answer these questions:What question is my assignment asking? How can I answer that question AND focus on a small area of investigation?Can I sum up the main idea of my paper in a nutshell? Reduce to a sentence or two the main idea that you wrote in 25 words.What "code words" (such as "relative freedom" or "lifestyles") does the draft of my thesis statement contain? Are these words adequately explained? Sharpen your language.After writing a draft, ask yourself: Have I supported the thesis, or digressed? Where? How?
12How do I know if my thesis is strong? When reviewing your first draft and its working thesis, ask yourself the following:Do I answer the question? Re-reading the question prompt after constructing a working thesis can help you fix an argument that misses the focus of the question.Does my thesis pass the "how and why?" test? If a reader's first response is "how?" or "why?" your thesis may be too open-ended and lack guidance for the reader. See what you can add to give the reader a better take on your position right from the beginning.Do I anticipate counter-arguments and prepare for them?
13How do I know if my thesis is strong? Does my essay support my thesis specifically and without wandering? If your thesis and the body of your essay do not seem to go together, one of them has to change. It's okay to change your working thesis to reflect things you have figured out in the course of writing your paper. Remember, always reassess and revise your writing as necessary.A thesis statement has one main point rather than several main points. More than one point may be too difficult for the reader to understand and the writer to support.More than one main point: Stephen Hawking's physical disability has not prevented him from becoming a world-renowned physicist, and his book is the subject of a movie.One Main point: Stephen Hawking's physical disability has not prevented him from becoming a world renowned physicist.
14How do I know if my thesis is strong? Does my thesis take a definitive stand on an issue? The idea here is that your thesis must clearly promote your conclusions about something, and it should be debatable.A thesis takes a stand rather than announcing a subject.Announcement: The thesis of this paper is the difficulty of solving our environmental problems.Thesis: Solving our environmental problems is more difficult than many environmentalists believe.
15How do I know if my thesis is strong? Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? If your thesis simply states facts that no one would, or even could, disagree with, it's possible that you are simply providing a summary, rather than making an argument.A thesis statement is an assertion, not a statement of fact or an observation.Fact or observation: People use many lawn chemicals.Thesis: People are poisoning the environment with chemicals merely to keep their lawns clean.
16How do I know if my thesis is strong? Is my thesis statement specific enough? Specificity will allow you to corral your ideas into a framework. It will help you hone your topics to very clear parameters, rather than trying to tackle a very large or vague topic.A thesis statement is specific rather than vague or general.Vague: Hemingway's war stories are very good.Specific: Hemingway's stories helped create a new prose style by employing extensive dialogue, shorter sentences, and strong Anglo- Saxon words.
17How do I know if my thesis is strong? Have I clarified my topic into measurable terms? Thesis statements that are too vague often do not have a strong argument. If your thesis contains words like "good" or "successful," see if you could be more specific: why is something "good"; what specifically makes something "successful"? Does my thesis pass the "So what?" test? If a reader's first response is, "So what?" then you need to clarify, to forge a relationship, or to connect to a larger issue.A thesis statement is narrow, rather than broad. If the thesis statement is sufficiently narrow, it can be fully supported.Broad: The American steel industry has many problems.Narrow: The primary problem if the American steel industry is the lack of funds to renovate outdated plants and equipment.
18Some sample thesis statements Recognizing strong thesis statements will help you as you write essays.
19Sample Thesis #1Suppose you are taking a course on 19th-century America, and the instructor hands out the following essay assignment: Compare and contrast the reasons why the North and South fought the Civil War. You turn on the computer and type out the following:The North and South fought the Civil War for many reasons, some of which were the same and some different.Discuss the above thesis statement. What works? What doesn’t?
20Sample Thesis #1 The North and South fought the Civil War for many reasons, some of which were the same and some different.The above thesis restates the question without providing any additional information, making it a pretty weak statement. You will expand on this new information in the body of the essay, but it is important that the reader know where you are heading.A reader of this weak thesis might think, "What reasons? How are they the same? How are they different?" Ask yourself these same questions and begin to compare Northern and Southern attitudes (perhaps you first think, "The South believed slavery was right, and the North thought slavery was wrong"). Now, push your comparison toward an interpretation—why did one side think slavery was right and the other side think it was wrong? You look again at the evidence, and you decide that you are going to argue that the North believed slavery was immoral while the South believed it upheld the Southern way of life. You write:While both sides fought the Civil War over the issue of slavery, the North fought for moral reasons while the South fought to preserve its own institutions.Discuss this new thesis. What makes it stronger than the previous one?
21Sample Thesis #1 While both sides fought the Civil War over the issue of slavery, the North fought for moral reasons while the South fought to preserve its own institutions.Now you have a working thesis! Included in this working thesis is a reason for the war and some idea of how the two sides disagreed over this reason. As you write the essay, you will probably begin to characterize these differences more precisely, and your working thesis may start to seem too vague. Maybe you decide that both sides fought for moral reasons, and that they just focused on different moral issues. You end up revising the working thesis into a final thesis that really captures the argument in your paper:While both Northerners and Southerners believed they fought against tyranny and oppression, Northerners focused on the oppression of slaves while Southerners defended their own right to self-government.Compare this to the original weak thesis. This final thesis presents a way of interpreting evidence that illuminates the significance of the question.Discuss this final thesis. What makes it stronger than the previous one?
22Sample Thesis #2Suppose your literature professor hands out the following assignment in a class on the American novel: Write an analysis of some aspect of Mark Twain's novel Huckleberry Finn. "This will be easy," you think. "I loved Huckleberry Finn!" You grab a pad of paper and write:Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn is a great American novel.Discuss this first thesis. What can be done to improve it?
23Sample Thesis #2 Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn is a great American novel. Why is this thesis weak? Think about what the reader would expect from the essay that follows: you will most likely provide a general, appreciative summary of Twain's novel. The question did not ask you to summarize; it asked you to analyze. Your professor is probably not interested in your opinion of the novel; instead, she wants you to think about why it's such a great novel—what do Huck's adventures tell us about life, about America, about coming of age, about race relations, etc.? First, the question asks you to pick an aspect of the novel that you think is important to its structure or meaning—for example, the role of storytelling, the contrasting scenes between the shore and the river, or the relationships between adults and children. Now you write:In Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain develops a contrast between life on the river and life on the shore.Discuss this newer thesis. What makes it better than the first one?
24Sample Thesis #2 In Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain develops a contrast between life on the river and life on the shore.Here's a working thesis with potential: you have highlighted an important aspect of the novel for investigation; however, it's still not clear what your analysis will reveal. Your reader is intrigued, but is still thinking, "So what? What's the point of this contrast? What does it signify?" Perhaps you are not sure yet, either. That's fine—begin to work on comparing scenes from the book and see what you discover. Free write, make lists, jot down Huck's actions and reactions. Eventually you will be able to clarify for yourself, and then for the reader, why this contrast matters. After examining the evidence and considering your own insights, you write:Through its contrasting river and shore scenes, Twain's Huckleberry Finn suggests that to find the true expression of American democratic ideals, one must leave "civilized" society and go back to nature.This final thesis statement presents an interpretation of a literary work based on an analysis of its content. Of course, for the essay itself to be successful, you must now present evidence from the novel that will convince the reader of your interpretation.Discuss this newer thesis. What makes it better than the first one?
25Sample Thesis #3A thesis statement should show exactly what your paper will be about, and will help you keep your paper to a manageable topic. For example, if you're writing a seven-to-ten page paper on hunger, you might say:World hunger has many causes and effects.Discuss this thesis. How can it be improved?
26Sample Thesis #3 World hunger has many causes and effects. This is a weak thesis statement for two major reasons. First, world hunger can’t be discussed thoroughly in seven to ten pages. Second, many causes and effects is vague. You should be able to identify specific causes and effects. A revised thesis might look like this:Hunger persists in Glandelinia because jobs are scarce and farming in the infertile soil is rarely profitable.Discuss this thesis. What makes it stronger than the first draft?
27Sample Thesis #3 Hunger persists in Glandelinia because jobs are scarce and farming in the infertile soil is rarely profitable.Hunger persists in Glandelinia because jobs are scarce and farming in the infertile soil is rarely profitable.This is a strong thesis statement because it narrows the subject to a more specific and manageable topic, and it also identifies the specific causes for the existence of hunger.It gives you something to discuss, argue, and support.
28Just for Kicks: Try an Online Thesis Building Program While they aren’t foolproof, they will help you see the process of generating a working thesis, which you can hone and shape into something that is quite effective.Thesis Builder: