2Why did Martin Luther challenge the Catholic Church? Essential Question:Why did Martin Luther challenge the Catholic Church?
3What Was HappeningIn Europe BeforeThe Reformation?
4The Conflict Between Pope and King The struggles between Charles V and Pope Leo X highlighted the growing war between both leaders for control of Europe.Charles would ultimately win, but the Reformation would eventually force both sides to reassess their power base.
5Draw a T-Bar Chart and Fill In the Following: Add “Pope” & “Emperor” to chartFill in the following words & phrases – can only be used once:- spiritual leader - political leader- elected by 7 German princes - elected by Cardinals of the church- protector of Christianity - High priest of Christianity- ruler of the States of the Church in Italy - ruler of areas of empire- lived in Rome – lived in Germany & surrounding areas)
6What was the Protestant Reformation? CHRISTIANITYPROTESTANTCATHOLIC
8Luther Through the Years Young Martin LutherOld Martin Luther
9Causes of the Reformation The RenaissanceScientific Advances which contradicted the ChurchThe Corruption within the Catholic Church
10Setting the StagePrior to the Reformation all Christians were Roman CatholicThe [REFORM]ation was an attempt to REFORM the Catholic Church
11What was the Protestant Reformation? Prior to 1517, the Catholic Church had been “selling indulgences” to Christians.Indulgences allowed people to “buy their way into heaven.” Given the right amount of money, the Church would forgive a person’s sins.Jorge Breu, 1530 “A Question to a Mintmaker”Depiction of Selling Indulgences
12What was the Protestant Reformation? Martin Luther, a Catholic monk, was troubled by the practice of indulgences and wrote a letter to the Archbishop of Mainz to explain his position.The Pope considered Luther’s position to be heretical and excommunicated Luther from the Catholic Church.Luther gained support from a group of German Princes who protected Luther and helped him spread his ideas.Collection of Martin Luther’s Writings, 1581
13What was the Protestant Reformation? People like Martin Luther wanted to get rid of the corruption and restore the people’s faith in the church.In the end the reformers, like Luther, established their own religions.The Reformation caused a split in Christianity with the formation of these new Protestant religions.
14Protestant Reformation? What was the result ofProtestant Reformation?
15A Radical Transformation At the beginning of the 16th century, Europe was uniformly Catholic.By the middle of the 16th century, large sections of Europe were Protestant.The shift was part of the Reformation, spurred by the writings of Martin Luther’s 95 Theses, drafted in 1517.Europe in 1560
16Reformation Timeline1517: Johan Tetzel travels throughout Germany preaching on indulgences.Oct. 31, 1517: Martin Luther sends his 95 Theses with a letter to the Archbishop of Mainz.1521: Pope Leo calls on Luther to take back his 95 Theses, but Luther refuses.
17Reformation Timeline (cont.) 1521: Holy Roman Emperor Charles V declares Luther a criminal and attempts to arrest him.Frederick, a German prince, pledges his support to Luther and grants him protection at his castle.
18Reformation Timeline (cont.) : Luther’s ideas spread throughout Europe and gain more support. Over the next 20 years, it becomes clear that an irreversible break has occurred between Catholics and the Protestant movement.
19Luther's 95 ThesesA list of things he thought were wrong with the Catholic Church (95 Complaints)He criticized:The Power of the PopeThe Extreme Wealth of the ChurchIndulgences (Catholic concept of Salvation)
20Luther's 95 ThesesA person cannot “earn” their way to heaven by doing good works (Salvation received, NOT achieved).A person who truly believes in God WILL have good works because change is the only true sign of repentance.Priests are not a necessary part of repentance. A believer does not need the approval of a man, only the approval of God.#1 A person cannot “earn” their way to heaven by doing good works. A catchy phrase to help students remember this is: Salvation is received, not achieved.According to Luther, a person who truly believes in God WILL indeed have good works because change is the only true sign of repentance.#2 Priests are not a necessary part of repentance. A believer does not need the approval of a man, only the approval of God. It is also important to explain to children that Luther’s motive was Not Trying to start a brand new religion. Luther felt that his ideas were directly from the Bible. He always quoted verses in his teaching: One of Luther’s favorite verses is from Ephesians 2:8-9. It says: For it is by grace that you have been saved, through faith, and this not from yourselves, it is the gift of God, not by works, so that no one can boast. (This was his main argument against priests and earning one’s way to heaven by doing good works.) Luther felt that The Church had gone astray over the years and he was trying to bring back the basic beliefs that he felt had changed.
21Luther's 95 ThesesPrinting Press made it possible for Luther to spread his beliefs.Initially posted his 95 Theses on Church doors in Germany, hoping for an ‘academic discussion’ – within a fortnight, the pope has learned of it.Gained support from people and criticism from Church.
22Trial of WormsBy 1518, Luther’s ‘academic discussion’ had turned into a frenzy. After three meetings with Cardinal Cajetan, Luther refused to recant.Catejan demanded Luther be sent to Rome for trial - Frederick the Wise intervened. He suggested Luther be given a chance to debate his interpretation of Scripture, reflecting many German’s views.Pope Leo X sent a Papal Bull, clarifying indulgences and promising to eliminate the wost abuses.
23“This Bull condemns Christ himself. The Pope is the Antichrist.” Trial of WormsA debate was proposed between Luther and a professor named John Eck. Over 18 days & 4 sessions, the two argued free will, indulgences, and the role of Rome in The Church.With no clear winner, Leo sent another Bull demanding Luther recant 41 of the 95 Theses. Luther’s books were burned in Rome. Upon hearing it, Luther said:“This Bull condemns Christ himself. The Pope is the Antichrist.”
24Trial of Worms Pope Leo excommunicated Luther on 1/3/1521. After sending an appeal, Charles V invited Luther to the Diet meeting at Worms to “answer with regard to your book and…teaching.” He was promised safe conduct.Over two days, Luther refused to back down. On May 6, 1521, the Pope issued the Edict of Worms, cutting Luther off from the Church and forbid anyone to harbor him.Frederick staged a ‘kidnapping’ of Luther to protect him.
25The Aftermath Trial of Worms Rather than following the edict, his old town of Wittenberg welcomed Luther’s return in 1524, placed him back on the pulpit, and allowed him to deliver lectures again.In 1525, he married Katherine von Bora, who had helped him to escape Worms.In 1526, under pressure from Luther’s growing popularity, the Church issued the Diet of Speyer, which only enforced Worms in Catholic-held territories. Since Luther was no longer Catholic, the Church couldn’t pursue him.
26Acceptance of ReformsSome Local German Churches accepted Luther’s ideasSupported by German Princes who issued a formal “protest” against the Church for suppressing the reformsThe reformers came to be known as [PROTEST]ants - Protestants
27Others Join the Argument John Huss (prior to Luther) – burned at the stake after being promised a fair trialJohn CalvinThomas Cromwell – beheaded for treason for his viewsWilliam Tyndale – strangled and burned to death for his viewsJohn Wycliffe
28CALVINISM Started in Switzerland – Calvinists England = Puritans Scotland = PresbyteriansHolland = Dutch ReformFrance = HuguenotsGermany = Reform Church
29John Calvin Frenchman, born Jean Cauvin, in France 1509 Father encouraged him to study law in ParisUnderwent a conversion after reading Luther’s works in 1532 – did he become a monk??
30John Calvin1536: Institutes of Christian Religion is printed in Latin (reached the widest audience & was incredibly influential)Appealed to human reason, dealt logically with Protestant issues, not aimed at a particular regionCalvin agreed with Luther about problems with the Church and justification by faith BUT took a step farther (Predestination), and also felt that Church should not be controlled by the State
31John CalvinCalvin set up his idea of a model Christian community in Geneva (‘Protestant Rome’)Theocracy: The church runs the gov’tCalvinists had to follow strict rules & were exiled if they didn’t comply:Attend sermons five times a weekNo playing cards or diceDo not sing in churchNo working or playing on Sundays
32CALVINISM“Total Depravity”: Every person is enslaved to sin, and are only willing to serve God to protect their own interests.“Unconditional election”: God has already chosen (ELECTED) people for salvation and damnation before they are born (Predestination).“Irresistible grace”: The saving grace of God overcomes people’s resistance. It cannot be resisted.“Perseverance of the saints”: People have no ability to change God’s will if they fall away from the faith. Those who stay with God will continue in faith until the end.
33John Calvin’s Effect The Puritans adopt many of Calvin’s ideas. English Protestants who desired to ‘purify’ themselves from the Catholic Church – believed in Predestination and ElectionIn the early 1600’s, Puritans spread to America, seeking religious freedom, and hoping to create a replica of Calvin’s model society.
3595 Theses Interpretations Our thesis was ______________.In our own words, we think this thesis means_______________.OrLuther was trying to say that ________.This thesis shows that Luther thought the church was ______ because they ________ (adjective)(verb statement)
36Why did Martin Luther challenge the Catholic Church? Essential Question:Why did Martin Luther challenge the Catholic Church?