Presentation on theme: " Why did Martin Luther challenge the Catholic Church?"— Presentation transcript:
Why did Martin Luther challenge the Catholic Church?
The struggles between Charles V and Pope Leo X highlighted the growing war between both leaders for control of Europe. Charles would ultimately win, but the Reformation would eventually force both sides to reassess their power base.
Add “Pope” & “Emperor” to chart Fill in the following words & phrases – can only be used once: - spiritual leader - political leader - elected by 7 German princes - elected by Cardinals of the church - protector of Christianity - High priest of Christianity - ruler of the States of the Church in Italy - ruler of areas of empire - lived in Rome – lived in Germany & surrounding areas)
Martin Luther John Calvin Henry VIII
8 Young Martin Luther Old Martin Luther
The Renaissance Scientific Advances which contradicted the Church The Corruption within the Catholic Church
Prior to the Reformation all Christians were Roman Catholic The [REFORM]ation was an attempt to REFORM the Catholic Church
Jorge Breu, 1530 “A Question to a Mintmaker” Depiction of Selling Indulgences † Prior to 1517, the Catholic Church had been “selling indulgences” to Christians. † Indulgences allowed people to “buy their way into heaven.” Given the right amount of money, the Church would forgive a person’s sins.
Collection of Martin Luther’s Writings, 1581 † Martin Luther, a Catholic monk, was troubled by the practice of indulgences and wrote a letter to the Archbishop of Mainz to explain his position. † The Pope considered Luther’s position to be heretical and excommunicated Luther from the Catholic Church. † Luther gained support from a group of German Princes who protected Luther and helped him spread his ideas.
People like Martin Luther wanted to get rid of the corruption and restore the people’s faith in the church. In the end the reformers, like Luther, established their own religions. The Reformation caused a split in Christianity with the formation of these new Protestant religions.
Europe in 1560 At the beginning of the 16th century, Europe was uniformly Catholic. By the middle of the 16th century, large sections of Europe were Protestant. The shift was part of the Reformation, spurred by the writings of Martin Luther’s 95 Theses, drafted in 1517.
: Johan Tetzel travels throughout Germany preaching on indulgences. Oct. 31, 1517: Martin Luther sends his 95 Theses with a letter to the Archbishop of Mainz. 1521: Pope Leo calls on Luther to take back his 95 Theses, but Luther refuses.
: Holy Roman Emperor Charles V declares Luther a criminal and attempts to arrest him. Frederick, a German prince, pledges his support to Luther and grants him protection at his castle.
: Luther’s ideas spread throughout Europe and gain more support. Over the next 20 years, it becomes clear that an irreversible break has occurred between Catholics and the Protestant movement.
A list of things he thought were wrong with the Catholic Church (95 Complaints) He criticized: The Power of the Pope The Extreme Wealth of the Church Indulgences (Catholic concept of Salvation)
A person cannot “earn” their way to heaven by doing good works (Salvation received, NOT achieved). A person who truly believes in God WILL have good works because change is the only true sign of repentance. Priests are not a necessary part of repentance. A believer does not need the approval of a man, only the approval of God.
Printing Press made it possible for Luther to spread his beliefs. Initially posted his 95 Theses on Church doors in Germany, hoping for an ‘academic discussion’ – within a fortnight, the pope has learned of it. Gained support from people and criticism from Church.
By 1518, Luther’s ‘academic discussion’ had turned into a frenzy. After three meetings with Cardinal Cajetan, Luther refused to recant. Catejan demanded Luther be sent to Rome for trial - Frederick the Wise intervened. He suggested Luther be given a chance to debate his interpretation of Scripture, reflecting many German’s views. Pope Leo X sent a Papal Bull, clarifying indulgences and promising to eliminate the wost abuses.
A debate was proposed between Luther and a professor named John Eck. Over 18 days & 4 sessions, the two argued free will, indulgences, and the role of Rome in The Church. With no clear winner, Leo sent another Bull demanding Luther recant 41 of the 95 Theses. Luther’s books were burned in Rome. Upon hearing it, Luther said: “This Bull condemns Christ himself. The Pope is the Antichrist.”
Pope Leo excommunicated Luther on 1/3/1521. After sending an appeal, Charles V invited Luther to the Diet meeting at Worms to “answer with regard to your book and…teaching.” He was promised safe conduct. Over two days, Luther refused to back down. On May 6, 1521, the Pope issued the Edict of Worms, cutting Luther off from the Church and forbid anyone to harbor him. Frederick staged a ‘kidnapping’ of Luther to protect him.
Rather than following the edict, his old town of Wittenberg welcomed Luther’s return in 1524, placed him back on the pulpit, and allowed him to deliver lectures again. In 1525, he married Katherine von Bora, who had helped him to escape Worms. In 1526, under pressure from Luther’s growing popularity, the Church issued the Diet of Speyer, which only enforced Worms in Catholic-held territories. Since Luther was no longer Catholic, the Church couldn’t pursue him.
Some Local German Churches accepted Luther’s ideas Supported by German Princes who issued a formal “protest” against the Church for suppressing the reforms The reformers came to be known as [PROTEST]ants - Protestants
John Huss (prior to Luther) – burned at the stake after being promised a fair trial John Calvin Thomas Cromwell – beheaded for treason for his views William Tyndale – strangled and burned to death for his views John Wycliffe
Started in Switzerland – Calvinists England = Puritans Scotland = Presbyterians Holland = Dutch Reform France = Huguenots Germany = Reform Church
Frenchman, born Jean Cauvin, in France 1509 Father encouraged him to study law in Paris Underwent a conversion after reading Luther’s works in 1532 – did he become a monk??
1536: Institutes of Christian Religion is printed in Latin (reached the widest audience & was incredibly influential) Appealed to human reason, dealt logically with Protestant issues, not aimed at a particular region Calvin agreed with Luther about problems with the Church and justification by faith BUT took a step farther (Predestination), and also felt that Church should not be controlled by the State
Calvin set up his idea of a model Christian community in Geneva (‘Protestant Rome’) Theocracy: The church runs the gov’t Calvinists had to follow strict rules & were exiled if they didn’t comply: Attend sermons five times a week No playing cards or dice Do not sing in church No working or playing on Sundays
“Total Depravity”: Every person is enslaved to sin, and are only willing to serve God to protect their own interests. “Unconditional election”: God has already chosen (ELECTED) people for salvation and damnation before they are born (Predestination). “Irresistible grace”: The saving grace of God overcomes people’s resistance. It cannot be resisted. “Perseverance of the saints”: People have no ability to change God’s will if they fall away from the faith. Those who stay with God will continue in faith until the end.
The Puritans adopt many of Calvin’s ideas. English Protestants who desired to ‘purify’ themselves from the Catholic Church – believed in Predestination and Election In the early 1600’s, Puritans spread to America, seeking religious freedom, and hoping to create a replica of Calvin’s model society.
Puritan Hugeunots Presbyterian
Our thesis was ______________. In our own words, we think this thesis means_______________. Or Luther was trying to say that ________. This thesis shows that Luther thought the church was ______ because they ________ (adjective) (verb statement)
Why did Martin Luther challenge the Catholic Church?