2Initiated and developed by the WHO in collaboration with IWA (as many of our members are water utilities) as a tool for ensuring safety of DW.WSPs are recommended as the most effective management approach for ensuring the safety of drinking-water supplies in the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water
3A way to ensure safe drinking-water by: What is a WSP?A way to ensure safe drinking-water by:Knowing the system thoroughlyIdentifying where and how problems could ariseMultibarrier approach - Putting barriers and management systems in place to stop the problems before they happenMaking sure all parts of the system work properlyA comprehensive risk assessment and risk management approach that encompasses all steps in water supply from catchment to consumerFits within a framework for safe drinking-waterWSPs are system specific so the Manual is just a guideline documentNature of WSP will depend on complexity/simplicity of the systemPossible to have WSP regardless of size of utility/system
4Regional or local Government Focus is on Water SupplierRegulatorsRegional or local GovernmentNational GovernmentHealthCatchment managersCommunity & consumer groupsWater supplierCONSUMERSRaw water catchmentLocal builders, plumbers & water fittings suppliersAlthough it is risk assessment and risk management approach that encompasses all steps in water supply from catchment to consumer. It is within the boundaries of the water utility and what they can influence and control.Upstream water sourceDownstream – network deliveryWhich is why it is important for the WSP process to have wider stakeholder engagementNational/regional water associationsCatchment UsersNational associations dealing with builders, plumbers, retailers & manufacturers
5Overview of Water Safety Plans Assemble team(Module 1)Develop supporting programmes(Module 9)Plan & carry out periodic WSP review (Module 10)Verify the effectiveness of the WSP (Module 7)Develop, implement & maintain an improvement plan (Module 5)Determine & validate control measures, reassess & prioritize risks (Module 4)Identify the hazards & assess the risks(Module 3)Revise WSP following incident (Module 11)Describe the water supply system (Module 2)Define monitoring of control measures (Module 6)incidentFeedbackManagement & communicationMonitoringSystem assessmentPrepare management procedures(Module 8)Preparation11 step proccess, which includes preparation, system assssment, monitoring, management and communication and feedback
6WSPs AND Catchment Management Part of WSP process is identifying hazards and assessing riskIdentify all hazardous events that could contaminate, compromise or interrupt supplyIdentify all potential hazards in supply chain (from source to tap)Evaluate the risks associated with each hazard/hazardous eventExamplesHeavy rainfall (hazardous event) may promote the introduction of microbial pathogens (hazards) into the source waterFlooding can result in damaged infrastructureDrought can compromise water supply and water quality
7Emphasis on treatment for water quality Water utilities range of controlCostBarriers / Control MeasuresCatchmentTreatmentDistributionConsumers
8Better catchment management Catchment management improves water supply downstream (quantity and quality)Increase source water quality – OR – ensure source water quality does not deteriorateDecrease intensity of treatment processes – reduce costs (chemicals, energ)Decrease the necessity to seek new water resources (time and money)Decrease water quality variance – more predictable qualityUnderstanding flood and drought hazards enables better planning for infrastructure investment (e.g. storage and networks), risk mitigation measures (e.g. urban storage and drainage)
9Linking catchment Management and WSP Identify key catchment stakeholdersVerify effectiveness of catchment controlsMap and characterise catchmentsDevelop catchment partnershipsPromote catchment risk mitigate measuresIdentify hazards and hazardous activitiesFlood and drought information is neededDevelop catchment warning and response proceduresAssess risks which could compromise treated water qualityIn the case of many utilities, there has been little control or engagement with the catchment and the control measures has focused from the intake. However, through WSP there is more priority to catchment initiatives with collaboration between water companies and catchment stakeholders. The benefits of such collaboration may be long term (e.g. communication and education of population on why water sources need to be protected), so also require involvement of regulators to enable sustainable solutions. Some utilities have also undertaken initiatives with other catchment stakeholders, particularly with agriculture in respect to pesticides and fertilizer usage and animal grazing and breeding. In some cases, the WSP approach was a way of reinvigorating these initiatives.Implement risk based raw water monitoringBalance between need for enhanced treatment and likely effectiveness of catchment controlsAssess need for improved treatment to reduce risk
10Policy and Legislation Catchment partnershipsPolicy and LegislationNational / regional levelWater AssociationsWater AssociationsWater AssociationsLocal implementationCatchment managersCatchment ‘users’Water SupplierCatchment Level
11Development of tools to incorporate impacts of climatic variability and change, in particular floods and drought, into basin planning processes
12Project rationaleClimatic variability and change is increasing in the form of more frequent, severe and less predictable floods and droughtsGrowing sense of urgency among countries, basin organizations and other end users such as utilities to build resilience towards floods and droughtsRisks related to hydrologic uncertainty is magnified in transboundary contexts, where cooperation among countries is essential to any coping strategy.
13Project BackgroundInitiated by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) secretariat and UNEP to look at methodologies for addressing extreme weather eventsPartners – IWA, DHI and UNEPDHI – expertise on development of tools for water managemnetIWA – engaging with key end users (especially utilities) to develop and test methodologyGEF needs to develop a tool to better address floods and drought issues in its portfoliomore than 50 IWRM-related projects in 30 lake and river basins throughout the world.GEF projects have shown flood and droughts to be a priority transboundary concern, along with the other multiple drivers that cause depletion and degradation
14Project GoalThe project aims at contributing to the global efforts being made to maintain acceptable levels of societal and ecosystem sustainability vis-a-vis growing climatic uncertainty and unpredictability.Project ObjectiveImprove the ability of land, water and urban area managers operating in transboundary river basins to recognize and address, as part of the TDA-SAP, IWRM plans and water safety plans processes, the implications of the increased frequency, magnitude and unpredictability of flood and drought events
16Project outputsDeveloping a generic methodology for basins, which uses tools and decision support systems that integrate information on floods and droughts to:Transboundary Diagnostic Analyses and Strategic Action PlansIWRM and Water safety plans.Based on an assessment of present approaches, and developed through consultation with stakeholdersCombination of learning and pilot transboundary basin
17BasinsPilot Basins – Direct testing of generic methodology to incorporate floods and droughts into planningLake Victoria, Volta, Chao PhrayaLearning Basins – Consultations to understand how DSS are being applied and used in planning and what can be improvedDanubeIdentify main water management issues and use these as a starting point for discussionOpportunity to take stock of how the basin is managing flood events, what are the gaps and what can be developed in the futureRationale: There are differing capacities across regions and in order for the methodology to be truly generic, it needs to be tested in different basins which have end users with varying needs, demands, wishes, interest, opportunities, and capacities.The learning can be two-ways. The project can no doubt learn from certain issues that have been addressed in the basin and the methodologies and tools used. On the other hand, certain innovative methods and tools will emerge from the project and as they are in the public domain they can be applied by the agencies in the learning basin.One such learning basin is the Danube, which has shown interest to such a degree that it has decided contribute with co-finance.The engagement with learning basins will be to identify main water management issues and use these as a starting point for discussion. Transboundary cooperation has been on-going for a long time (in some cases with the support of GEF) and this provides an opportunity to take stock of how the basin is managing flood events, what are the gaps and what can be developed in the future. Specifically, what is the support system needed to improve the decision making process? The outputs of these discussions would be used in the development of the methodology.
18BasinGEFTransboundary institutionLocationNos. of countries in basinFlood and drought impactsMajor urban areaExisting water safety plansVoltadateVolta Basin AuthorityWest Africa6Serious – irregular flooding and droughtOuagadougouUnder developmentChao PrayaNot earlierNoneSouth East Asia1Extremely seriousBangkokLake VictoriadateLake Victoria Basin CommissionEast Africa5SeriousKampala, Mwanza and KisumuYes
19What is thE “methodology”? Most advanced commercially available Decision Support Systems (DSS) combine databases, models, GIS and web technologies with configurable decision logics.Information is processed in such a way to produce various scenarios to make informed decisionsProject will develop open access modules to allow the integration of flood and drought elements and of likely climatic scenarios into more commonly used DSSs, and apply them to IWRM planning, to the TDA process, and to WSPs.
20Stakeholder Engagement Emphasis is to be placed on the management of floods and droughts affecting urban and industrial areas that are the centers of economic growth, assets and wealth creation.Links with utilities and WSPs that incorporate catchment managementWSP will complement wider basin planning and provide in depth engagement with end usersProvides opportunity for awareness raising on river basin management benefits at local level (urban and industrial)The Water Safety Plan approach will be used to complement wider basin planning as it provides a more in depth engagement with key stakeholders and their legitimate concerns about risk assessment and management options within their boundaries as well as those in the wider river basin contextA particular emphasis will be placed on the management of floods and droughts affecting urban and industrial areas that are the centers of economic growth, assets and wealth creation. Furthermore the engagement with key economic stakeholders depending on sound river basin management can be deepened and lead to a wider appreciation of river basin management benefits, at the national and transboundary levels.
21Discussion Risks and Hazards What specific risks and hazards around floods and droughts, have you encountered which you would like to include in planning processes?What kind of information do you currently gather around floods and droughts (quantitative and qualitative) in the TDA/SAP process?Decision support systemsWhat type of decision support tools (especially for floods and droughts) are you familiar with? How are using them?What type of outputs do you use or are you looking for from a DSS which focuses on floods and droughts? How would use information from a DSS in a TDA process and planning?Stakeholder engagementHow do you engage with other stakeholders at local level (e.g industries, utilities, etc)?