Presentation on theme: "3 objectives of grammar practice 1.Accuracy (precision at applying the system) 2.Fluency (automization of the system) 3.Restructuring (integrating new."— Presentation transcript:
3 objectives of grammar practice 1.Accuracy (precision at applying the system) 2.Fluency (automization of the system) 3.Restructuring (integrating new knowledge into old)
When accuracy is the goal Attention to form Familiarity Thinking time Feedback
When fluency is the goal Attention to meaning Authenticity Communicative purpose Chunking Repetition
Practice activities to aid restructuring Problematizing (forced to reassess grasp of rule; negotiate meaning) Push (out-perform their competence) Scaffolding (support to provide the security to take risks with language)
Faced with Ss possible error 1.Is there an error here? 2.What kind of error is it (i.e. how to classify it)? 3.What caused it (i.e. transfer or developmental)? 4.Does it matter (i.e. is it intelligible)? 5.What should I do about it?
Categories of errors 1.Lexical 2.Grammar 3.Discourse 4.Pronunciation
Transfer L1 influence on L2 production Two types: Positive and negative (L1 interference)
Developmental errors Errors made during the process of hypothesis formation and testing of language
Error matters or not Intelligibility – to what extent does the error interfere with or distort the speaker’s message
Attitude to error and correction * Your opinion
Error options (1) Negative feedback (self-correction) Teacher repairs the utterance Pinpoint kind of error the student made (self or peer correction) Feedback signal for the class (peer correction) Lead up to the error and pause right before it (isolate for peer correction; finger-coding) Echo the mistake with a quizzical intonation (self-correction)
Error options (2) Clarification requests (signal lack of clarity) Literal interpretation to show unintended effect of the error Reactive teaching (impromptu teaching point) Reformulation (covert feedback) “Good” (focus on meaning over form) Teacher says nothing but writes down error for future reference (postpone feedback so as to interrupt the flow of talk vs. real operating conditions – correct at the moment the error is made)
Feedback strategy 1.The type of error (Does it have a major effect on communication? Is it one the learner could probably self- correct?) 2.The type of activity (Is the focus of the activity more on form or on meaning?) 3.The type of learner (Will the learner be discouraged or humiliated by correction? Alternatively, will the learner feel short-changed if there is no correction?)
Alternative model to PPP 1.Task (learners first perform a communicative task that the teacher sets up) 2.Teach (the teacher then uses this to identify language features learners could have used in order to communicate their intentions more effectively, and these are taught and practiced) 3.Task (students reform the original or similar task)
Why task-based learning? Exposure (to a rich but comprehensible input of real spoken and written language in use – i.e. authenticity) Use (of the language to do things – i.e. meaningful communication) Involvement (of learners who work cooperatively together – i.e. student-centered; active participation) Motivation (to listen and read the language and to speak and write – i.e. to process and use the exposure) Instruction (gives students a chance to focus on form – i.e. accuracy) Feedback (opportunities for learners to report their experience of the task – i.e. assess achievement of aims)
What is a task? A task is an activity where the target language is used by learners for a communicative purpose (goal) in order to achieve an outcome.
Type of tasks Listing (e.g. brainstorming and fact finding) Ordering and sorting (sequencing, ranking, categorizing, classifying) Comparing (matching, finding similarities, finding differences) Problem solving (analyzing real or hypothetical situations, reasoning, decision making) Sharing personal experiences (narrating, describing, exploring and explaining attitudes, opinions or reactions)
Task design principles The situation in which the task takes place should be likely to happen in real life (e.g. buying a present for a friend, inviting someone to a dinner, booking a room, seeing a doctor, etc.) The task should involve communicative factors that can help students work together to solve a certain problem. Students’ individual ideas and ways of dealing with a given task are encouraged (i.e. they give their own ideas or comments without fear of being criticized or corrected) Cultural issues should be involved in grammar teaching where possible (which opens the opportunity for cross-cultural comparisons)
Framework 1.Pre-task (introduction to topic and task, to include activating background knowledge) 2.Task cycle (learners engage in the task, to include planning for it and summarizing and sharing their results; the teacher ends by sharing or modeling with a student) 3.Language focus (teachers draws students’ attention to the target language, and then gives students a chance to practice again with the clarified forms)
Task-based vs. PPP vs. EIF Task-based learning: Clarification of the target language comes after use PPP (Presentation > Practice > Production): Clarification of the target language comes prior to use EIF (Encounter > Internalize > Fluency): Clarification occurs during the second stage of use
Task-based grammar class characteristics (1) The process of learning is a process of obtaining information, dealing with information, analyzing problems and solving problems. When the students’ attention is focused on the problems or activities, it is easier to learn the grammar items well. The purpose of language learning is not just learning grammar knowledge, but the practical use of it. Cooperative learning becomes accessible. In order to make the tasks more meaningful and interesting, the grammar class requires students to work collaboratively together.
Task-based grammar class characteristics (2) Student participation is maximized and teacher-talk is minimized. The focus is on students, and the teacher facilitates learning. Students’ individuality (creative way of thinking and personal views in understanding and solving problems) is appreciated. In task-based class, there is not only one answer to every question and there is no set answer. We appreciate new ideas from the students.
A task-based lesson 1.Preparation 2.Pre-task 3.Task cycle 4.Language focus
Pre-task 1.I’m going to show you a photo of me from the past (1990). In pairs, discuss what you think will be different (1990 and 2013). Please tell me what you talked about with your partner. 2.In pairs, discuss what was different about me then – both what you can see and how you imagine I was like at that time. Please tell me what you talked about with your partner.
Task cycle In pairs, discuss what your life was like 10 years ago (2003): What did you look like? What was different about your life? Did you have different likes and dislikes? Did you have different hobbies? Are you very different now?
Task cycle (2) 1.Prepare a summary of your discussion – one you will later report to the whole class. You have 5-7 minutes to do this. 2.Listen carefully to each person and decide which students have changed the most in the past 10 years (2003 > 2013). 3.Now listen to the text that I prepared about my life in 1990. When finished, discuss what I looked like, what was different about my life, the different likes/dislikes and hobbies I had, and how I am different now.
Me in Indonesia in 1990 (1) 1.I used to have long hair and a beard. 2.I used to read a lot more. 3.I used to take cold showers. 4.I used to eat with my right hand – but not my left! 5.I used to take rickshaws nearly every day. 6.I used to unwittingly eat rat meat. 7.I used to play a lot of badminton and pool. 8.I used to receive heart-melting love letters from my soulmate.
Me in Indonesia in 1990 (2) 1.I didn’t used to live alone. 2.I didn’t used to cook. 3.I didn’t used to wear glasses. 4.I didn’t used to travel very much. 5.I didn’t used to have a cell phone, let alone a smart phone. 6.I didn’t used to spend so much time in front of computers. 7.I didn’t used to mix house and techno music. 8.I didn’t used to think about retirement.
Language focus (1) 1.Listen to my text again. See if you can identify a pattern. Discuss with a partner. 2.With a partner, write down the rules for the pattern you identified. 3.When do we use this pattern? 4.Write down three things that you used to do and three things that you didn’t used to do when you were children (up to age 12). 5.Share what you wrote with a partner.
Language focus (2) Repeat the same task you did at the beginning of the task cycle. This time, try to include the pattern (target structure) “used to” when mingling with your classmates. What did you look like? What was different about your life? Did you have different likes and dislikes? Did you have different hobbies? Are you very different now?
Task-based lesson review Pre-task (teacher introduces the topic and activates background knowledge) Thought about how I was different – 1990 vs. 2013, I showed photos, and then you noted the differences – what you saw and what you imagined Task cycle (students engage in task; teacher models the target structure – used to) You talked about your own lives 10 years ago, summarized your discussion, decided who changed the most, and then listened to my text with the target structure Language focus (teacher draws attention to target structure; students practice it) You identified the target language – to include writing down the rule, I checked your understanding, and then you had an opportunity to practice using the target structure (which I later used to focus on accuracy)
Your turn! 1.Simple future tense – (will + verb/will + not + verb) My life will change a lot over the next ten years. George will have a great time in Italy this summer. Amy will not get married to her boyfriend. They will not make it to the airport on time. 1.Pre-task (introduce topic/task, activate background knowledge) 2.Task cycle (task – summarize/share, teacher models) 3.Language focus (target language, student practice)