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Reasoning Rationally Using thinking to make good decisions

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Objectives: the student will= Define Reasoning Define Algorithms Including inductive and deductive reasoning (venn) Define Heuristic and Create a dialectical reasoning chart on an argument topic Explain reflective judgment

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Reasoning The drawing of conclusions or inferences from observations, facts, or assumptions chapter 7

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Reasoning Formal reasoning problems- college entrance exam- have all info needed Only need to apply algorithm

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Algorithms Formulas, Procedures. For example Mathematical formulas, scientific procedures. G.P.A., gas mileage Always works if you follow procedure But Does not work for everything. Are you happier with a red car or white car? Objective problem= then use Heuristic

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School transportation algorithm

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Algorithms and logic Deductive reasoning A tool of formal logic in which a conclusion necessarily follows from a set of premises. chapter 7

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Conclusion necessarily follows All human beings are mortal I am a human being Conclusion- I am mortal DEDUCTIVE REASONING

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Algorithms and logic Inductive reasoning A tool of formal logic in which a conclusion probably follows from a set of premises. chapter 7

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Conclusion PROBABLY true Delicious meal at Joe’s restaurant Monday Delicious meal at Joes Tuesday Delicious meal on Wednesday Reasonably reach conclusion Joe’s serves good food But meals could have been prepared by guest chef filling in

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Selecting a Strategy Trial and error Search for key in the dark More complex problems= Better Methods Knowledge, Procedure, Formula Step by step ( systematically) Called Algorithms= FORMAL REASONING HOWEVER Heuristic- More intuitive ( going with your gut)

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Flow of terms

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Heuristics and dialectical thinking Heuristic A rule of thumb that suggests a course of action or guides problem solving but does not guarantee an optimal solution Dialectical reasoning A process in which opposing facts or ideas are weighed and compared, with a view to determining the best solution or resolving differences chapter 7

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Heuristic Simple basic rules, “Rule of thumb” Hearts card game “get rid of high cards first” Usually start off in right direction 3 Heuristic Strategies worth remembering Walking backwards- Eliminates false starts and dead ends. Math problems Analogy- Did this work last time? Snow Tires Sub goals- Break problem down. Plan of attack. Research Paper

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Dialectical reasoning chart Should Marijuana be legal? Any controversial topic Then cover up the side you believe in How do you feel?

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Core Concept Good thinkers not only have a repertoire of effective strategies, called algorithms and heuristics, they also know how to avoid impediments to problem solving

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Reflective judgment Skills Question assumptions Evaluate and integrate evidence Relate evidence to theory or opinion Consider alternative interpretations Reach defensible conclusions Reassess conclusions in face of new evidence chapter 7

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Stages of reflective judgment chapter 7

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Summary Reasoning Algorithms- inductive/deductive Dialectical reasoning

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QUESTIONING EDU 395: Module 4B: Creative Thinking Dr. Margaret Maughan c. 2004 SUNY Plattsburgh.

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