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Chapter 3 Lecture Conditioning Your Cardiorespiratory System © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Learning Outcomes Explain how cardiorespiratory fitness is a key component of your overall fitness and wellness. Identify the key structures of the cardiorespiratory system and state how they work together to provide oxygen to the body. Outline how the three metabolic systems provide energy for exercise. Describe the fitness and wellness benefits you can get from cardiorespiratory training. Assess your cardiorespiratory fitness level on a regular basis using a variety of methods. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Learning Outcomes continued Set and work toward appropriate cardiorespiratory fitness goals. Implement a cardiorespiratory exercise plan compatible with your goals and lifestyle. Incorporate strategies to prevent injuries during cardiorespiratory training. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Cardiorespiratory System and Fitness Cardiorespiratory Fitness –The ability of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to supply oxygen and nutrients to large muscle groups to sustain dynamic activity Respiratory System (Pulmonary System) –Air passageways and lungs Cardiovascular System –Heart and blood vessels © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Cardiorespiratory System © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
How the Cardiorespiratory System Works Air Passageways –Warm, humidify, and filter incoming air, promoting optimal gas exchange (delivering oxygen and removing carbon dioxide) Lungs –Facilitate the movement of oxygen into the blood and the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide—a process called respiration © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Respiratory System © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
How the Cardiorespiratory System Works continued Heart –Four chambers that pump blood through two different circulatory systems Pulmonary system: blood circulates from the heart to the lungs and back Systemic circuit: blood circulates from the heart to the rest of the body and back Blood Vessels –Transport blood throughout the body via arteries (carry blood away from the heart) and veins (carry blood back toward the heart) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Heart © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Three Metabolic Systems Deliver Essential Energy ATP (adenosine triphosphate): a cellular form of energy that must be constantly regenerated from energy stored in your body and from the foods you eat Immediate energy system: quick access to energy for "explosive" activities Nonoxidative (anaerobic) energy system: breaks down glucose without oxygen quickly for activity needs in the first three minutes of exercise Oxidative (aerobic) energy system: utilizes oxygen to break down fat, glucose, and protein for sustained activities © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Anaerobic vs. Aerobic ATP Production © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Cardiorespiratory System at Rest and during Exercise Resting Condition –Homeostasis: a stable, constant internal environment that the body seeks to maintain while at rest Response to Exercise –Cardiac output: the amount of blood exiting the heart in one minute –Increased heart rate and stronger contractions result from physical activity © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
How Aerobic Training Conditions the Cardiorespiratory System Increases oxygen delivery to muscles Improves the transfer and use of oxygen Improves the body's ability to use energy efficiently © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Effects of Cardiorespiratory Training © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Benefits of Improved Cardiorespiratory Fitness Decreases risk of disease, including those risks related to metabolic syndrome (obesity-related risk factors) Helps control body weight and composition Improves self-esteem, mood, and sense of well-being Improves immune function Improves long-term quality of life © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Assessing Your Cardiorespiratory Fitness Monitor your resting heart rate. –Reflects general fitness level –Involves taking your pulse Understand maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max). –Measures the body's ability to use oxygen during activity –Most accurate measurements are done in a lab setting Test your submaximal heart rate responses. –Submaximal levels are compared to norms or predictions –Generally safer and easier to conduct than maximal tests and may be done in the field or in a lab © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Determining Your Own Heart Rate © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Measuring VO 2 max © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Assessing Your Cardiorespiratory Fitness continued Tests for cardiorespiratory fitness in the field and classroom: –3-minute step test –1-mile walking test –1.5-mile running test © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Creating Your Own Cardiorespiratory Program Set appropriate cardiorespiratory fitness goals. –SMART goals: specific, measurable, action-oriented, realistic, time-oriented Learn about cardiorespiratory training options. –Classes –Indoor workouts –Outdoor workouts –Differing workout formats Continuous training Interval training Circuit training © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Creating Your Own Cardiorespiratory Program continued Apply the FITT Principles: –Frequency –Intensity Determine your heart rate Determine your rate of perceived exertion Perform the talk test –Time/duration –Type © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
FITT Training Guidelines © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Target Heart Rate Guidelines © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The OMNI Scale of Perceived Exertion © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Cardiorespiratory Intensity Scales © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Creating Your Own Cardiorespiratory Program continued Include Warm-Up and Cool-Down Phases –Your sessions should consist of three key components: Warm-up phase Cardiorespiratory endurance conditioning set Cool-down phase Plan for Proper Progression –Follow the 10% rule: weekly increases in frequency, intensity, and/or time should not exceed 10%. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Sample Cardiorespiratory Workout © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Maintaining Cardiorespiratory Fitness Understand the Stages of Progression –Start-up phase: Pay attention to how you feel. Lasts approximately 2–4 weeks –Improvement phase: Your body begins to adapt to greater activity. Lasts approximately 3–8 months –Maintenance phase: You have attained a higher fitness level. Keeping your program consistent is key at this stage. Lasts indefinitely © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Maintaining Cardiorespiratory Fitness continued Record and Track Your Fitness Progress –This helps identify patterns and problems. Troubleshoot Problems Right Away –Don't let temporary setbacks take hold. Periodically Reassess Your Cardiorespiratory Fitness Level –Use Lab 3.2 to help you reassess your needs. Reassess Your Goals and Program as Needed –Use your target dates to review your goals and make adjustments that might be productive. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Avoiding Injury during Cardiorespiratory Exercise Design a personalized, balanced program. Wear appropriate clothing and footwear. Pay attention to your exercise environment: –Heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat stroke –Hypothermia –Air quality –Hazards © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Avoiding Injury during Cardiorespiratory Exercise continued Drink enough water. –Avoid dehydration. Prevent and treat common injuries: –Delayed-onset muscle soreness –Muscle and tendon strains –Ligament and joint sprains –Overuse injuries © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Avoiding Injury during Cardiorespiratory Exercise continued Treat injuries with RICE: –Rest –Ice –Compression –Elevation –Seek medical attention if you are unsure of the extent of your injury or if symptoms do not subside within a few hours. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Common Exercise Injuries © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Common Exercise Injuries continued © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Heart Rate: Radial Pulse © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Exercise Video: Heart Rate: Radial Pulse PLAY
Heart Rate: Carotid Pulse © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Exercise Video: Heart Rate: Carotid Pulse PLAY
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