Presentation on theme: "EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES MEET THE CHALLENGE OF TRANSFORMED LIBRARIES Marshall Breeding Independent Consult, Author, Founder and Publisher, Library Technology."— Presentation transcript:
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES MEET THE CHALLENGE OF TRANSFORMED LIBRARIES Marshall Breeding Independent Consult, Author, Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides http://www.librarytechnology.org/ http://twitter.com/mbreeding Feb 21, 2013 Academic Library Directors Symposium
Summary Major trends are in play that contribute to major transformations underway in libraries. In the broader publishing and information arena, the explosion of interest in e-books represents another wave in the shift toward electronic content that in previous times saw the near complete transition of journal articles to electronic form. Web-based and cloud computing stands to bring fundamental changes in the ways that libraries use technology in support of their internal operations and in providing access to their collections and services. In this keynote presentation, Breeding will help library decision makers explore how to harness these trends and technologies to meet the strategic missions.
Role of Academic Libraries in Motion Transitions complete Print > electronic journals Transitions Underway E-books Open access publishing Metadata management Uncertain trends New models of collaboration Defining new roles with the academic institution Observation: technology infrastructure created in earlier times unlikely to help libraries today succeed
Reshaped collections Journal content: mostly delivered electronically Monographs: transition to e-books underway E-books now largely delivered through database aggregations Ebrary, E-books on EBSCOhost, etc. Academic libraries not yet that involved with downloadable e-book lending services (OverDrive 3M Cloud Library, etc) Legacy print collections will remain indefinitely Digital collections Locally digitized materials
Fulfillment activities Print circulation slowing Interlibrary loan activity rising Increased pressure for resource sharing Traditional models of service blurring together Circulation Interlibrary Loan Course Reserves Consortial borrowing Avoid placing the burden on the patron to determine the appropriate service
Allocation of resources Collection funds devoted mostly to e-content If true: How does allocation of efforts for personnel compare to collection expenditures? Does the technology and automation infrastructure provide the flexibility needed for proportional resource allocation?
Additional academic library roles Deeper involvement in research process Ready reference > in-depth research support Embedded librarian initiatives Library involvement in research data NSF data management plans (example) What technology infrastructure do academic libraries need to support these new activities?
Cumulative effect Library collections more complex than ever Library services move diverse Managing electronic and digital content harder than managing print What technology infrastructure needed to support libraries in this new phase of complexity?
Technology in transition New era of cloud computing Client/server architecture becoming obsolete Any new development: Web-based applications Designed for delivery through software as a service Mobile first strategies for end-user applications
Cloud Computing Major trend in broader IT sector Few organizations have core competence in large-scale computer infrastructure management Essentially outsourcing of server housing and management Usually based on a consumption-based business model Most new software products delivered through some flavor of cloud computing Many flavors to suit business needs: public, private, hybrid
Infrastructure-as-a-service Provisioning of computing and storage equipment Servers, storage Virtual server provisioning Examples: Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) Rackspace Cloud www.rackspacecloud.com/)www.rackspacecloud.com/ EMC 2 Atmos (www.atmosonline.com/)
Software as a Service Multi Tennant SaaS is the modern approach One copy of the code base serves multiple sites Software functionality delivered entirely through Web interfaces No workstation clients Upgrades and fixes deployed universally Usually in small increments
Data as a service SaaS provides opportunity for highly shared data models Shared knowledge bases for OpenURL linking and electronic resource management Indexes of article-level content to support discovery services Shared bibliographic data General opportunity to move away from library-by- library metadata management to globally shared workflows Library automation increasingly driven by knowledge bases
Library Automation in the Cloud Almost all library automation vendors offer some form of “cloud-based” services Server management moves from library to Vendor Subscription-based business model Comprehensive annual subscription payment Offsets local server purchase and maintenance Offsets some local technology support
Leveraging the Cloud Moving legacy systems to hosted services provides savings to individual institutions while preserving existing workflow and functionality New systems designed for software-as-a-service may enable libraries to reimagine workflows and functionality Shared data and metadata models have the potential to achieve new levels of operational efficiencies and more powerful discovery and automation scenarios that improve the position of libraries overall
Transition away from local computing Local computing increasingly less appropriate for libraries Managing low-level technical infrastructure not a core area of expertise for libraries Security requirements increasingly challenging Opportunity to redirect library technologists to high-value activities May meet cultural resistance
Open Systems Achieving openness has risen as the key driver behind library technology strategies Libraries need to do more with their data Ability to improve customer experience and operational efficiencies Demand for Interoperability Open source – full access to internal program of the application Open API’s – expose programmatic interfaces to data and functionality
Social Computing Web 2.0 as a separate activity largely a distraction Important to have social orientation built directly into the software and services that comprise library infrastructure Avoid jettisoning patrons out of the library’s Web presence Find ways to effectively connect with users, connect users to each other, and especially to connect users to library content and services
Academic Libraries as part of the Campus Enterprise Academic libraries tend to be well integrated organizationally Increasingly important for the library to integrate into the technical fabric of its parent institution Interoperate with other business applications Financial / ERP systems Student records management Learning Management Systems Authentication services Move beyond batch data exchange to real-time interoperability Web services and APIs
A new world for Metadata Management Traditional Cataloging vs Metadata support for new collection realities How to maintain quality as priorities shift Original and Copy Cataloging based on one- record-at-a-time workflows Increased need to manage metadata in bulk E-content packages E-book collections
Cataloging rules and standards FRBR: hierarchies and groupings RDA: Next generation of AACR2, but with an eye toward the semantic web Tiny step Library of Congress Initiative for Bibliographic Transition See: bibframe.org Replacement for MARC as the carrier for bibliographic data A much more radical change
Metadata Management Workflows Less emphasis on record-by-record processing Knowledge-base approach Given model for e-resource management Comprehensive knowledge base of what content is associated with content packages Matched against profile of library subscriptions Useful for e-book collections Applicable to individual monograph acquisitions?
Automation priorities Current ILS model focuses on technical services Discovery interfaces and catalog address patron self-service General absence of customer relationship management How can new generations of technology infrastructure provide tools to facilitate research support, reference, and other public services Need to generate performance metrics for these critical library services
Data-driven management Business systems generate high volume of use data Traditional ILS products have not been strong in generating actionable use data Increased emphasis on mining use data and providing analytical tools to support operational decisions Collection development Personnel allocation Service definition Resource allocation Provide evidence to defend budget proposals
Cooperation and Resource sharing Efforts on many fronts to cooperate and consolidate Many regional consortia merging (Example: suburban Chicago systems) State-wide or national implementations Software-as-a-service or “cloud” based implementations Many libraries share computing infrastructure and data resources
Strategic Cooperation Shared infrastructure in support of strategic collaborative relationships Opportunities to share infrastructure Examples: 2CUL Orbis Cascade Alliance Opportunities to reconsider automation implementation strategies One library = 1 ILS? Ability to share infrastructure across organizational boundaries?
Technology Support for Academic Libraries Greater concern with electronic scholarly articles Management: Need for consolidated approach that balances print, digital, and electronic workflows Access: discovery interfaces that maximize the value of investments in subscriptions to scholarly articles and research materials
Appropriate Automation Infrastructure Automation infrastructure must be in step with current realities Allow administrators to allocate personnel easily among collection management priorities Adequate data and analytics for administrative decision support Discovery solutions that fully expose library collections Library users expect more engaging socially aware interfaces for Web and mobile
Disjointed approach to information and service delivery Library Web sites offer a menu of unconnected silos: Books: Library OPAC (ILS online catalog module) Articles: Aggregated content products, e-journal collections OpenURL linking services E-journal finding aids (Often managed by link resolver) Subject guides Local digital collections ETDs, photos, rich media collections Metasearch engines Discovery Services – often just another choice among many All searched separately
Online Catalog Books, Journals, and Media at the Title Level Not in scope: Articles Book Chapters Digital objects Web site content Etc. Scope of Search Search: Search Results ILS Data
Web-scale Index-based Discovery Search: Digital Collections Web Site Content Institutional Repositories … E-Journals Reference Sources Search Results Pre-built harvesting and indexing Consolidated Index ILS Data Aggregated Content packages (2009- present)
Integrating e-Books into Library Automation Infrastructure Current approach involves mostly outsourced arrangements Collections licensed wholesale from single provider Hand-off to DRM and delivery systems of providers Loading of MARC records into local catalog with linking mechanisms No ability to see availability status of e-books from the library’s online catalog or discovery interface
Proliferation of library automation components ILS for management of (mostly) print Duplicative financial systems between library and campus Electronic Resource Management (non-integrated with ILS) OpenURL Link Resolver w/ knowledge base for access to full-text electronic articles Digital Collections Management platforms (CONTENTdm, DigiTool, etc.) Institutional Repositories (DSpace, Fedora, etc.) Discovery-layer services for broader access to library collections No effective integration services / interoperability among disconnected systems, non-aligned metadata schemes
Comprehensive Resource Management No longer sensible to use different software platforms for managing different types of library materials ILS + ERM + OpenURL Resolver + Digital Asset management, etc. very inefficient model Flexible platform capable of managing multiple type of library materials, multiple metadata formats, with appropriate workflows
Libraries need a new model of library automation Not an Integrated Library System or Library Management System The ILS was designed to help libraries manage print collections Generally did not evolve to manage electronic collections Other library automation products evolved: Electronic Resource Management Systems – OpenURL Link Resolvers – Digital Library Management Systems -- Institutional Repositories
Library Services Platform Library-specific software. Designed to help libraries automate their internal operations, manage collections, fulfill requests, and deliver services Services Service oriented architecture Exposes Web services and other API’s Facilitates the services libraries offer to their users Platform General infrastructure for library automation Consistent with the concept of Platform as a Service Library programmers address the APIs of the platform to extend functionality, create connections with other systems, dynamically interact with data
Library Services Platform Characteristics Highly Shared data models Knowledgebase architecture Some may take hybrid approach to accommodate local data stores Delivered through software as a service Multi-tenant Unified workflows across formats and media Flexible metadata management MARC – Dublin Core – VRA – MODS – ONIX New structures not yet invented Open APIs for extensibility and interoperability
Consolidated index Unified Presentation Layer Search: Digital Coll ProQuest EBSCO … JSTOR Other Resources New Library Management Model ` API Layer Library Services Platform Learning Management Enterprise Resource Planning Stock Management Self-Check / Automated Return Authentication Service Smart Cad / Payment systems Discovery Service
How to Harness new technology to meet the needs of Transformed academic libraries ? Challenge:
Reassess expectations of Technology Many previous assumptions no longer apply Technology platforms scale infinitely No technical limits on how libraries share technical infrastructure Cloud technologies enable new ways of sharing metadata Build flexible systems not hardwired to any given set of workflows
Reassess workflow and organizational options ILS model shaped library organizations New Library Services Platforms may enable new ways to organize how resource management and service delivery are performed New technologies more able to support strategic priorities and initiatives
Reassess the role of library technologists Cloud-based services allow libraries to re-focus technology personnel Less emphasis on routine infrastructure Technologists can focus on higher-level services
Reassess how to shape software to local needs Shift from customization and enhancements to open APIs Less encumbered by vendor priorities More empowered to create local value-added services From monolithic closed system to flexible platform Opportunities to build more unified virtual services for patrons
Time to engage Transition to new technology models just underway More transformative development than in previous phases of library automation Opportunities to partner and collaborate Vendors want to create systems with long-term value Question previously held assumptions regarding the shape of technology infrastructure and services Provide leadership in defining expectations