Presentation on theme: "JAY SULLIVAN DUKE UNIVERSITY TRINITY COLLEGE, CLASS OF 2016 PRESENTATION TO DURHAM CITY COUNCIL INNOVATING PARKS: A Proposal for a Natural Durham."— Presentation transcript:
JAY SULLIVAN DUKE UNIVERSITY TRINITY COLLEGE, CLASS OF 2016 PRESENTATION TO DURHAM CITY COUNCIL INNOVATING PARKS: A Proposal for a Natural Durham
Introduction Current state of Durham parks and urban planning What can the future be? Academic research for design and planning Case Study, Example of a park development A Complete System-Not Just Parks Application of principles-Accomplish the goals
Current Approaches to Parks Penny on tax rate to build and maintain parks and trails, make it a priority of city Recreational, open spaces Green Infrastructure-making connections Enhance natural capacities when possible, more minimization What is Urban Environmental Design (UED)? Evidence-based creative protection and enhancement of natural systems to provide for the health of humans and preserve ecosystems-Schauman, 2013 Structure, but unstructured and innovative
The Soul of Durham Parks The Problem Durham does not have the capacity or focus on innovative park spaces that serve multiple purposes, and concepts for parks do not easily translate to broader urban planning The Solution Parks cannot be controlled - Hubs of life Public spaces – Design communities around green spaces with parks as both natural ecosystems and community centers Increase maintenance, equal access to parks (natural benefits to having many with good design principles)
Ecological Democracy and Sustainable Design Randolph T. Hester writes in his book, Design for Ecological Democracy, in such a society: "Actions are guided by understanding natural processes and social relationships within our locality and the larger environmental context. This causes us to creatively reassess individual needs, happiness, and long-term community goods in the places we inhabit. Ecological democracy can change the form that our cities take creating a new urban ecology. In turn, the form of our cities, from the shape of regional watersheds to a bench at a post office, can help build ecological democracy" (4).
Humans and Nature “Biophilia is the innate tendency to focus on life and lifelike process.” E.O. Wilson--Harvard 1984 Emotional, spiritual, and neurological connection Environmental psychology (sense of home, exploration, complexity, and coherence in natural spaces) Rachel and Stephen Kaplan U/Michigan Life demands directed attention (higher stress less health), but nature solves that by providing relief Biophilia, prospect (strength) refuge (hide) and hazard (danger)
Biophilic Design Multifaceted Parks - A human and environment element Biophilic Design creates a good habitat for people in a modern built environment that satisfies the need for beneficial contact with the world and enhances the natural environment Connection to nature We need to feel, touch, and explore We care more for the sustainability of the planet when we have something to value and protect
Applied Biophilic Design Integrate with widespread action Benefits to City of Durham More than Durham Central Park Add more green, nearby nature, barriers such as highways destroy this Need local parks and connectivity for fauna and humans Benefits to citizens Scientific evidence and educational opportunities Neuroscience, immunology, sensory deprivation, social contact, and growth Children mature in their world-epigenetics
Environmental Benefits Connective park system provides habitat for local flora and fauna Provides ecosystem for animals and ecosystem services for the community Deal with storm water at the source, lack of necessity of pipes and shows water to people Daylighting streams Sun and air improve aquatic habitat, increase real estate value, reminds people of it, remove armored side slopes and increase roughness with vegetation, water purification-wetlands Dye Creek-flashy streams that flood and not at equilibrium) Trinity Homestead and Wall Town Consistent symptoms of the “urban stream syndrome” include a ﬂashier hydrograph, elevated concentrations of nutrients and contaminants, altered channel morphology and stability, and reduced biotic richness, with increased dominance of tolerant species (Paul and Meyer, 2001, Meyer et al. 2005). Jrnl of North American Benthological Society, vol 24, #3 [sept 2005] pp
Burlington, Vermont The Green Machine-Storm Water Management Pervious surfaces, constructed wetlands (green streets leach pollutants/reduce runoff and green the city streets clean at source and create habitat), Green Roof Constructed wetlands, waste and storm water treatment - on site or at crucial water locations Urban Greening Sidewalks as water treatment Need to let things grow for urban wildlife, beautiful engineering develops urban habitat for animals and people
Adaptive Reuse-An example people can learn from and develop values toward Case Study: 220 E. Main St.
Evaluating Durham Parks Master Plan Extend principles of greenery and environmental services to planning and execution of urban spaces Connectivity and equal access for all Increase access by developing community parks that serve connective and local access services-humans and nature Focus on mitigating recreational/athletic space development while enhancing other resources Use roofs, walls, and sidewalks/swales to create ecosystems Green infrastructure must be a priority in the Durham urban landscape It will be well received, if executed with UED principles
Engage the Public and Promote Stewardship How to engage public to make it happen Parks4Durham Get citizens involved in planning and execution process Develop capacity for Green Durham Ecological democracy Equity of Access and Voice in City Decisions Planning that builds communities and build environmental capability Urban Environmental Design Principles Biophilic cities model-Features of city connect to nature Parks integral to extensive efforts in the community Create a city that is livable for people
Vision for the Future A Bright Future, a Green Durham
References City of Durham Parks and Recreation Master Plan 2013 Durham Trails and Greenways Master Plan Central Durham Gateways Plan Downtown Durham Master Plan Design for Ecological Democracy, Randolph T. Hester Urban Transformation, Ian Bentley Sustainable Urbanism: Urban Design with Nature, Douglas Farr Biophilic Design: The Architecture of Life, Stephen Kellert Lecture and Class Notes from ENV 253: Urban Environmental Design course at Duke University