2Managerial Decision Making Decision making: the process by which managers respond to opportunities and threats by analyzing options, and making decisions about goals and courses of action.Decisions in response to opportunitiesDecisions in response to threats
3Decision Making Decision A choice from two or more alternatives. The Decision-Making ProcessA set of eight steps that include identifying a problem, selecting an alternative, and evaluating the decision’s effectiveness.
4The Decision-Making Process The eight steps in the decision-making process
5The Decision-Making Process The eight steps in the decision-making processIdentifying a problem- “My Sales reps need new Computers”Identifying decision criteria- Memory and Storage, Display quality, Better life, Warranty, Carrying WeightAllocating weights to the criteria
6Contd., 4. Developing alternatives-Toshiba, SonyVaio, Dell, Lenovo,HP, 5.Analyzing alternatives- Toshiba, Sony Vaio, Dell, Lenovo, HP,6. Selecting an alternative7. Implementing the alternative-Toshiba8. Evaluating decision effectiveness
7Step 1: Identifying a Problem Finding a discrepancy (difference) between an existing (current) and a desired state of affairs (things are not going as they should).Three Characteristics (aspects) of Problems.A problem is identified when:A manager becomes aware (conscious) of it.There is pressure to act and solve the problem.The resources needed to take action are available (means, authority, information).
8Step 2: Identifying Decision Criteria Managers must determine and list the relevant criteria the problem identified in step 1.Costs that will be incurredRisks likely to be encounteredOutcomes that are desired
9Step 3: Allocating Weights to the Criteria Prioritizing the criteria that were identified in step 2 by assigning a “weight” to each.Decision criteria are not of equal importance Assigning a weight to each item places the items in the correct priority in the decision making process.
10Step 4: Developing Alternatives Listing viable alternatives that could resolve the problem.Alternatives are only listed without evaluation.Page Slide 8
11Step 5: Analyzing Alternatives Appraising each alternative’s strengths and weaknesses against the criteria established in steps 2 and 3.Alternatives are analyzed for their effectiveness in resolving the issue.Slide 9
12Step 6: Selecting an Alternative Choosing the best alternative from among those considered.
13Step 7: Implementing the Decision Putting the chosen alternative into action.Conveying the decision to those who will implement it and gaining their commitment to the decision.Slide 11
14Step 8: Evaluating the Decision Effectiveness Evaluating the outcome of the decision to see if the problem has been resolved.The soundness of the decision is judged by its outcomes.How effectively was the problem solved resulting from the chosen alternatives?If the problem was not solved, what went wrong?Slide 12
15Evaluating Alternatives Is the possible course of action:Legal?EthicalEconomical?Practical?
16Types of Decision Making Programmed Decisions: routine, almost automatic process.Managers have made decision many times before.There are rules or guidelines to follow.Example: Deciding to reorder office supplies.Non-programmed Decisions: unusual situations that have not been often addressed.No rules to follow since the decision is new.These decisions are made based on information, and a manager’s intuition, and judgment.Example: Should the firm invest in a new technology?
18Types of Programmed Decisions A PolicyA general guideline for making a decision about a structured problem.A ProcedureA series of interrelated steps that a manager can use to respond (applying a policy) to a structured problem.A RuleAn explicit statement that limits what a manager or employee can or cannot do in carrying out the steps involved in a procedure.Slide 20
19Problems and Decisions (cont’d) Non-programmed DecisionsDecisions that are unique and nonrecurringDecisions that generate unique responses.Unstructured ProblemsProblems that are new or unusual and for which information is ambiguous or incomplete.Problems that will require custom-made solutions.
20Types of Problems, Types of Decisions, and Level in the Organization
21The Classical ModelClassical model of decision making: a prescriptive model that tells how the decision should be made.
22The Classical Model List alternatives & consequences Assumes all informationis available to managerAssumes manager canprocess informationAssumes manager knowsthe best future course ofthe organizationRank each alternativefrom low to highSelect bestalternative
23The Administrative Model Administrative Model of decision making: Challenged the classical assumptions that managers have and process all the information.As a result, decision making is risky.
24Contd.,Bounded rationality: There is a large number of alternatives and information is vast so that managers cannot consider it all.Decisions are limited by people’s cognitive abilities.Incomplete information: most managers do not see all alternatives and decide based on incomplete information.
25Why Information is Incomplete Uncertainty& riskAmbiguousInformationIncompleteInformationTime constraints &information costs
26Incomplete Information Factors Satisficing: Managers explore a limited number of options and choose an acceptable decision rather than the optimum decision.
27Making DecisionsRational decision making describes choices that are consistent and value-maximizing within specified constraints
29Influences on Decision Making Certain assumptions of rationality in the decision-making process are not always realisticBounded RationalityManagers tend to make decisions rationally, but are often limited (bounded) by their ability to process information.SatisficingBecause they cannot possibly analyze all information on all alternatives, managers accept solutions that are “good enough”. They satisfice rather than maximize.Page Slide 15
30Influences on Decision Making Decision making may be influenced by the organization’s culture, internal politics, power considerations and by…Escalation of CommitmentAn increasing or continued commitment to a previous decision despite evidence that the decision may have been wrong.
31Influences on Decision Making The Role of IntuitionIntuitive decision makingMaking decisions on the basis of experience, feelings, and accumulated judgment.Intuition or “gut feeling” and rational analysis complement each other.
32What is Intuition?Source: Based on L.A. Burke and M.K. Miller. “Taking the Mystery Out of Intuitive Decision Making.” Academy of Management Executive. October pp. 91–99.
33Cognitive BiasesSuggests decision makers use heuristics to deal with bounded rationality.Systematic errors can result from use of an incorrect heuristic.These errors will appear over and over since the rule used to make decision is flawed.
34Types of Cognitive Biases Prior HypothesisRepresentativenessCognitiveBiasesIllusion of ControlEscalating Commitment
35Types of Cognitive Biases Prior hypothesis bias: manager allows strong prior beliefs about a relationship between variables and makes decisions based on these beliefs even when evidence shows they are wrong.Representativeness: decision maker incorrectly generalizes a decision from a small sample or one incident.Illusion of control: manager over-estimates their ability to control events.Escalating commitment: manager has already committed considerable resource to project and then commits more even after feedback indicates problems.
36Group Decision Making Many decisions are made in a group setting. Groups tend to reduce cognitive biases and can call on combined skills, and abilities.There are some disadvantages with groups:Group think: biased decision making resulting from group members striving for agreement.Usually occurs when group members rally around a central manger’s idea (CEO), and become blindly committed without considering alternatives.The group tends to convince each member that the idea must go forward.
37Improved Group Decision Making Devil’s Advocacy: one member of the group acts as the devil’s advocate and critiques the way the group identified alternatives.Points out problems with the alternative selection.Dialectical inquiry: two different groups are assigned to the problem and each group evaluates the other group’s alternatives.Top managers then hear each group present their alternatives and each group can critique the other.
38Devil’s Advocacy v. Dialectic Inquiry Alter. 1Alter. 2Presentation ofalternativeCritique ofalternativeDebate the twoalternativesReassessalternativeaccept, modify, rejectReassessalternativesaccept 1 or 2, combine
39Organizational Learning & Creativity Organizational Learning: Managers seek to improve member’s ability to understand the organization and environment so as to raise effectiveness.Creativity: is the ability of the decision maker to discover novel ideas leading to a feasible course of action.
41Creating a Learning Organization Senge suggests top managers follow several steps to build in learning:Personal MasteryMental ModelsTeam LearningBuild a Shared VisionSystems Thinking
42Individual Creativity Organizations can build an environment supportive of creativity.Many of these issues are the same as for the learning organization.Managers must provide employees with the ability to take risks.If people take risks, they will occasionally fail.Thus, to build creativity, periodic failures must be rewarded.
43Building Group Creativity Brainstorming: managers meet face-to-face to generate and debate many alternatives.Production blocking is a potential problem with brainstorming.Members cannot absorb all information being presented during the session and can forget their own alternatives.
44Building Group Creativity Nominal Group Technique: Provides a more structured way to generate alternatives in writing.Avoids the production blocking problem.Similar to brainstorming except that each member is given time to first write down all alternatives he or she would suggest.Alternatives are then read aloud without discussion until all have been listed.Then discussion occurs and alternatives are ranked.
45Building Group Creativity Delphi Technique: provides for a written format without having all managers meet face-to-face.Problem is distributed in written form to managers who then generate written alternatives.Responses are received and summarized by top managers.These results are sent back to participants for feedback, and ranking.The process continues until consensus is reached.
46Making Decisions Decision-Making Styles Directive: Use minimal information and consider few alternatives.Analytic: Make careful decisions in unique situations.Conceptual: Maintain a broad outlook (wide perception) and consider many alternatives in making long-term decisions.Behavioral: Avoid conflict by working well with others and being receptive (accept) to suggestions.
47Quantitative Techniques for Planning and Decision Making Gantt Chart- A chart that depicts the planned and actual progress of work during the life of the project (Time and Activity chart)PERT (Programmed Evaluation Review Technique)- A network model used to track the planning activities required to complete a large-scale, non-repetitive project.
48Contd.,Critical Path Method- The path through the PERT network that includes the time consuming sequence of events and activitiesBreak Even-Analysis- A method of determining relationship between total costs and total revenues at various levels of production
49Contd.,Decision Trees-A decision tree provides a quantitative estimate of a best alternative.It is a tool for estimating the outcome of a series of decisionsWhen the sequences of the major decisions are drawn, they resemble a tree with branches
51Decision Making for Today’s World Characteristics of an Effective Decision-Making Process1 - It focuses on what is important.2 - It is logical and consistent.3 - It acknowledges both subjective and objective thinking and blends (mixes) analytical with intuitive (instinctive) thinking.4 - It requires only as much information and analysis as is necessary to resolve a particular dilemma.5 - It encourages and guides the gathering of relevant information and informed opinion.6 - It is straightforward (free from ambiguity), reliable, easy to use, and flexible.
52Bribes are common practice in many countries Transparency International ranks countries based on Bribe Payers Index