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1. 2 میترا حکمت افشار دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد پرستاری مراقبت های ویژه دی ماه 1388 دانشکده پرستاری مامایی گرگان استاد راهنما جناب.

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Presentation on theme: "1. 2 میترا حکمت افشار دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد پرستاری مراقبت های ویژه دی ماه 1388 دانشکده پرستاری مامایی گرگان استاد راهنما جناب."— Presentation transcript:

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2 2 میترا حکمت افشار دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد پرستاری مراقبت های ویژه دی ماه 1388 دانشکده پرستاری مامایی گرگان استاد راهنما جناب آقای علی اکبر عبداللهی

3 اهداف بیان اهمیت اندازه گیری درد و اصول آن مروری بر ابزارهای سنجش شدت درد ذکر معایب و مزایای آنان نحوه کار با پرسشنامه درد مک گیل نحوه کار با پرسشنامه درد مک گیل خلاصه شده درد در بیماران بشدت بدحال معرفی ابزارهای موجود جهت بررسی درد در بیماران بدحال 3

4 pain assessment The importance of pain assessment was identified as a necessary first step in improving the effectiveness of pain Management. 4

5 Principles of Assessment Assess and reassess. Reassess Intensity, Relief, And Side Effects. Use verbal report whenever possible. Document in a visible place. Include the family. 5

6 history of pain assessment In 1992 and again in 1994,the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) published guideline for the treatment of acute pain and cancer pain. In 1999, the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) released its standards on pain management. 6

7 Onset Location Duration Radiation Influence of pain in daily and quality of life 7 The Role of Nursing in Pain assessment

8 Measurement pain tools One–dimensional tools Pain rating scales : Visual analog scale Verbal rating scale Numerical rating scale Multidimensional tool The MCGILL pain QUESTIONNARE Initial pain assessment by McCaffery and pasero 8

9 Visual analogue scale (VAS) A horizontal or vertical line for the patient to rate current pain level. Patient can communicate by pointing Simple, easy to use Needs to understand concept of rating pain. Dependent on patient's prior pain experiences 9

10 The patient is asked to place a mark along the line to indicate the current pain level. 10 Visual analogue scale

11 Advantage of Visual analogue scale Simple quick to administer and may be used before, during, and following treatment. The scales may also be completed throughout the course of a day to assess change in pain intensity relative to activity or time of day. 11

12 limitation of visual analog scale Difficultly with administration in patient who has perceptual-motor problems. The major disadvantage of VAS is the assumption that pain is a unidimensional experience. 12

13 13 Verbal and Numeric Rating Scale

14 PAIN INTENSITY SCALE 14

15 McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) The McGill Pain Questionnaire, developed by Melzack (1975), was the first proper multidimensional self-report pain measuring instrument and is still the most widely used today. 15

16 McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) sensory: what the pain feels like physically where it is located, how intense it is, its duration and its quality (for example,burning, ‘throbbing). affective: what the pain feels like emotionally —whether it is frightening, worrying and so on. evaluative: what the subjective overall intensity of the pain experience is (for example, unbearable, distressing). 16

17 McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) Each of the three main classes was divided into a number of sub-classes (sixteen in total). 17

18 McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) Melzack and Torgerson (1971) then asked a sample of doctors, patients and students to rate the words in each sub-class for intensity. The first 20 questions on the McGill Pain Questionnaire consist of adjectives set out within their sub-classes, in order of intensity. Questions 1 to 10 are sensory, 11 to 15 affective, 16 is evaluative and 17 to 20 are miscellaneous. 18

19 McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ)Pain McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ)Pain codes E for pain on the surface of the body codes I for internal pain Codes and EI for both external and internal) indicate present pain intensity (PPI) on a 6-point verbal rating scale. Finally, patients complete a set of three verbal rating scales describing the pattern of the pain. 19

20 McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) Scores are given for the different classes (sensory, affective, evaluative and miscellaneous), and also a total score for all the sub-classes. Based on this, a pain rating index (PRI) is calculated 20

21 sensory affective evaluated miscellaneous PPI Pattern E&I

22 22

23 Sections: (1) What Does Your Pain Feel Like? (2) How Does Your Pain Change with Time? (3) How Strong is Your Pain? 23

24 What Does Your Pain Feel Like? Some of the following words below describe your present pain. Circle ONLY those words that best describe it. Leave out any category that is not suitable. Use only a single word in each appropriate category - the one that applies best. 24

25 موقتی و زود گذر فضایی فاصله ای فشار روی یک نقطه برنده

26 مستقل خود کفا فشار -کشش حسهای گوناگون کندی تند تیز گرمایی کشش انقباض جمع کردن منقبض کردن

27 ارزیابی ترس از غم و حسرت نحیف شدن احساسی -ارزیابی- حسی-متفرقه حسهای متفرقه حس

28 28 تاثیر-ارزیابی-متفرقه

29 How Does Your Pain Change with Time? 29

30 Do the following items increase or decrease your pain? (11) movement (12) sleep or rest (13) lying down (14) distraction (TV reading etc.) (15) urination or defecation (16) tension (17) bright lights (18) loud noises (19) going to work (20) mild exercise (21) fatigue (1) liquor (2) stimulants such as coffee (3) eating (4) heat (5) cold (6) damp (7) weather changes (8) massage or use of a vibrator (9) pressure (10) no movement 30

31 How Strong is Your Pain? the following 5 words represent the intensity of pain: mild discomforting distressing horrible excruciating 31

32 32

33 33

34 What dose your pain feel like? What dose your pain change with time? How strong your pain feel like?

35 Interpretation:  minimum pain score: 0 (would not be seen in a person with true pain)  maximum pain score: 78  The higher the pain score the greater the pain. 35

36 Comparison of pain scores using MPQ obtained from women during labor, And from patients in a general pain clinic and an emergency department. 36

37 Criticisms the need to have extensive understanding of the English language. Need to time consuming sufficient attention span normal cognitive state. 37

38 McGill short pain questionnaire Measures quality of pain Uses 15 descriptor words to measure sensory and affective dimension of pain. Can be used in conjunction with a pain intensity scale Gives more information about the patient's pain. 38

39 THE SHORT-FORM McGill PAIN QUESTIONNAIRE When it use?. when the time to obtain information from patients is limited when more information is desired than that provided by intensity measures such as the VAS or NRS. 39

40 Sensory dimension Affective dimension Intensity scale VAS Present pain intensity

41 PRI –T SCORES Comparison of total pain rating index (PRI-T)scores using the (SF-MPQ) for acute and chronic pain conditions. from various pain condition are as follows: labour pain,musculoskeletal pain and postsurgical pain. abdominal hysterectomy,acute headache,herpes zoster and postherapetic neuralgia,mucositis, angioplasty sheath removal, fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis, atypical facial pain,artheritis, osteoarthritis and chronic cancer pain.

42 With patients who are less responsive or unconscious the nurse must look to additional pain indicators. 42 PAIN ASSESSMENT in less responsive or unconscious

43 Altered body movements showing restlessness vocalizations (e.g. 'moaning and groaning) and facial expressions (grimacing or clenched teeth) 43

44 Changes in physiological parameters ? The Changes occur in physiological parameters, including cardiovascular (elevated blood pressure and heart rate)and respiratory but are not always accurate due to the underlying or drug therapy, and should be used with other forms of assessment. 44

45 Factors contributing to pain and discomfort in the critically ill Physical Psychosocial Intensive Care Unit Environment or Routine Procedural 45

46 Factors contributing to pain and discomfort in the critically ill physical factor Wounds-post-trauma, postoperative, or post procedural Sleep disturbance and deprivation Immobility, inability to move to a comfortable position because of tubes, monitors, restraints 46

47 47 Factors contributing to pain and discomfort in the critically ill Psychosocial Anxiety and depression Impaired communication, inability to report and describe pain. Fear of pain, disability, or death Separation from family lack of pleasant distractions 47

48 Factors contributing to pain and discomfort in the critically ill Intensive Care Unit Environment Continuous noise from equipment and staff Continuous or unnatural patterns of light Awakening and physical manipulation every 1-2 h for vital signs or positioning Continuous or frequent invasive, painful procedures Competing priorities in care: unstable vital signs, bleeding, dysrhythmias, poor ventilation-may take Precedence over pain management. 48

49 PROCEDURAL PAIN 49

50 Objective pain measures for use with critical care adult unable to self report The Behavioral Pain Rating Scale (BPRS) The Behavioral Pain Scale(BPS) Pain Behavior Assessment Tool (PBAT) Critical –Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT) Pain Assessment And Intervention Notation algoritm.(Pain Algoritm). Nonverbal pain scale.(NVPS) 50

51 Objective pain measures for use with critical care adult unable to self report  Research on the measurement of pain in critically ill adults who cannot self-report (referred to as nonverbal ICU patients) has emerged only within the past 2 decades. However,no measure of pain in nonverbal ICU patients is accepted as the “gold standard.” 51

52 Abstract Abstract: Critically ill patients experience significant levels of pain and discomfort from multiple intrinsic and extrinsic sources while in the intensive care unit (ICU). The use of objective pain measures in nonverbal patients is an essential alternative approach for pain assessment when self-reports are unavailable. This paper provides a critical review of the psychometric properties of 6 objective pain measures that were developed to assess pain in nonverbal adult patients in the ICU.. 52

53 Although 2 of the 6 objective pain measures showed good evidence of validity and reliability, none has undergone vigorous validation or has been accepted as a standardized measure. 53

54 بندی جمع بندی مطالب 54

55 American Pain Foundation or PAIN Alliance of State Pain Initiatives or Maryland Pain Initiative: or (voic )www.marylandpaininitiative.org American Pain Society or American Society for Pain Management Nursing or American Chronic Pain Association or

56 Reference Text Book Of Pain Ronaid Melzack &Patrick D.Wall Critical Care Nursing Thelans 2008 Black &Hawks 2005 Pain Management 2006 Black Well 56

57 Thank you for your attention 5/9/2015


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