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Palliative Care Practice Guidelines Thomas Palliative Care Services VCU Massey Cancer Center VCU Health System Original May 2006 Revised 2008 2010 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Palliative Care Practice Guidelines Thomas Palliative Care Services VCU Massey Cancer Center VCU Health System Original May 2006 Revised 2008 2010 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Palliative Care Practice Guidelines Thomas Palliative Care Services VCU Massey Cancer Center VCU Health System Original May 2006 Revised

2 Development and Verification The practice guidelines were developed by an interdisciplinary group of palliative care clinicians based on the best available research for each symptom addressed. If two medications seemed equally beneficial, medications were then selected based on cost, side effect profile, nursing time, and availability on our formulary. The practice guidelines are reviewed annually by our group of fellows, attending physicians, pharmacists, and nurses to determine if changes need to occur. The impact on symptoms are evaluated annually to determine if we have improved symptom burden within our population of patients. These practice guidelines have been reviewed by outside experts in the past. Nurses and fellows are educated on the use of the practice guidelines which also help instruct residents who are doing their palliative training on consistent research-based symptom management practice. We believe this has improved symptom management throughout the institution for those patients who do not receive or require a palliative care consult. November 2014

3 3 Table of Contents Alternative Route for Opioid Administration5 Bladder Spasms Treatment 6 Bowel treatment – stepped care program 7 Dyspnea8 Fever9 Hiccough10 Mucositis11 Pruritus12 Secretions13 Wound Odor14 NameDate Medical Director, Thomas Palliative Care Unit NameDate Director, Nursing

4 November Delirium Haloperidol 0.5 mg PO/IV/SC every 4 hours as needed Continue same dose Haloperidol every 12 hrs scheduled Evaluate to continue, taper or dc Titrate up by 1 mg every 1 hour until desired effect achieved (1mg, 2 mg, 3 mg, etc); MDD 20 mg *consider QTc monitoring at higher doses Lorazepam 0.5mg PO or IV every 1-2 hours as needed MDD* 12 mg Continue Lorazepam Evaluate regularly to taper or discontinue Consider Palliative Service consultation reliefno relief relief no relief after MDD Haldol no relief after 24 hours. Delirium, or acute confusional state, is a syndrome that presents in two basic forms. In its hyperactive form, it is manifested as severe confusion and disorientation, developing with relatively rapid onset and fluctuating in intensity. In its hypoactive form, it is manifested by an equally sudden withdrawal from interaction with the outside world. Nonpharmacological interventions: reorientation, maintaining sleep wake schedule Avoid restraints, minimize immobilizing treatments, maintain communication, med reconciliation Consider Palliative Service consultation atypical antipsychotic meds starting doses for delirium Olanzapine 2.5mg q12hrs Risperidone 0.25mg q12hrs Quetiapine 12.5mg q12hrs *consider QTc monitoring at higher doses Palliative Care practice guidelines: These are to be used as general guidelines. Please review carefully before using. Please note the PO route is always the initial route when possible. * MDD = Maximum Daily Dose Benzodiazepines may increase agitation and delirium; consider chlorpromazine 25 mg IV every 8 hrs

5 November Alternative Route for Opioid Administration If patient is unable to take PO analgesic AND IV access is not available Example: 360 mg of PO MSO 4 every day divided by 3 = 120 divided by 24 hrs = basal rate of 5 mg/hr IV MsO 4 PCA dose would be 2.5 mg q 6 min Bolus = 3 times basal dose = 15 mg q 1hr Convert 24-hour opioid requirement of continuous infusion of Basal Opioid via PCA pump. May add PCA dose of atleast 50% of basal rate every 6 min w/ bolus 3 times basal rate of every1 hr Convert to Fentanyl patch using equianalgesic coversion card, continue to give Fentanyl sublingual at dose of 25 mcg every ½ hour prn (Note: no benefit from patch for 8-14 hours) Convert to subcutaneous infusion of PCA using 27 gauge needle (PCA dose remains the same, change lock out to every 15 min). Infusion volume not to exceed 2 ml/hr so may need higher concentration. Remember can call pharmacy for assistance in how to order SQ PCA. *methadone not to be used due to risk of tissue necrosis Convert to rectal, vaginal or stoma route for long acting opioid (same dose) using Fentanyl injection sublingual 25 mcg every 30 min prn. Can give Roxanol(morphine 20mg/ml) sublingual and it can be given to patients that aren’t awake. Document patient ability to maintain internally. OPTIONS May also place subcutaneous needle for use if only intermittent opioids required, convert PO dose to parenteral dose using equianalgesic conversion card. Continue prn schedule. ** Physicians NOTE: Please consider incomplete cross tolerance in your conversions. If IV access is no longer available AND Patient is able to take PO medications, select appropriate long and short acting opioids and convert dosage requirements using equianalgesic conversion card Palliative Care practice guidelines: These are to be used as general guidelines. Please review carefully before using. Please note the PO route is always the initial route when possible.

6 November Bladder Spasms Treatment Obtain urinalysis and culture of clean catch urine If indwelling catheter is present assess if absolutely needs to be left in Negative urinalysis Positive urinalysis Assess catheter function; irrigate gently with NS Consider replacing if nonfunctioning or present for days- weeks Oxybutynin 5 mg PO TID x 48 hours- MDD 20 mg. If PO difficult, available in patch 3.9mg/day twice a week (patch not in formulary) Treat UTI as appropriate based on rest of historical data No further intervention is needed Oxybutynin 5 mg TID x 48 hours MDD 20 mg OR Scopolamine 0.4mg IV or sub cutaneously every 4 hours prn Continue Oxybutynin MD/RN/Rx consult Scopolamine patch every 72 hours OR scopolamine 0.4mg IV every 4 hours prn Use anticholinergic agents carefully in patients who are high risk for delirium; monitor closely Oxybutynin 5 mg PO TID x 48 hours MDD 20 mg An intermittent cramping sensation of the bladder resulting in discomfort and/or pain. Treat pain with prn analgesic while analyzing cause Alternative to oxybutynins: Tolterodine usual dose 1-2 mg PO BID Newer agents: solifenacin, Trospium, darifenacin Newer agents non-formulary Palliative Care practice guidelines: These are to be used as general guidelines. Please review carefully before using. Please note the PO route is always the initial route when possible.

7 November Bowel treatment – stepped care program Senokot 1-2 tab dayif taking opioids If no bowel movement for 48 hour period add one of these: Milk of magnesia concentrate 10 ml po every day OR Bisacodyl 10 mg PO/PR every day if po not tolerated or refused *consider KUB to r/o bowel obstruction before adding laxatives If no bowel movement in next 12 hours, perform rectal exam to rule out impaction If not impacted, Magnesium citrate 8 oz OR Fleets enema Soften with glycerin suppository then manually disimpact Increase the prophylactic regimen to 2 tab Senokot twice/day Consider Palliative Service consultation If impacted, Fleets enema Increase the prophylactic regimen to 2 tab Senokot twice/day Consider Palliative Service consultation Treatment to alleviate hard stools and/or constipation associated with opioid administration. Palliative Care practice guidelines: These are to be used as general guidelines. Please review carefully before using. Please note the PO route is always the initial route when possible. For opioid induced constipation, consider methylnaltrexone SQ injection ( 62kg=12mg SQ every other day until BM) Follow up with tap water enema until clear

8 November Dyspnea Complete respiratory assessment If oxygen sats <90% give oxygen 2L/min. Check hemoglobin and transfuse if consistent with care goals established on signout. Complains of dyspneaBronchospasm with audible wheeze If mild CHF(crackles on exam), with respiratory distress Furosemide 40 mg PO/IV for one dose Monitor for improvement. Consider MD consult For end stage, consider fentanyl nebulizer 25 mcg every 2 hours prn with 2.5 ml of NS IF NO BENEFIT consider lasix nebulizer 40 mg Trial of oxygen 2 liters/min Reassess every 2 hours If no relief, Consider Morphine 10 mg PO every 2 hours prn or 3 mg subcutaneous or IV hourly prn; monitor respirations Fentanyl nebulizer 25 mcg in 2.5 ml of NS every 2 hours prn If no relief, lorazepam 0.5 mg PO or IV every 4 hours prn. Monitor respirations If relief, continue lorazepam prn MDD 10 mg/day Albuterol 2 inhalations every 4 hours prn or 3ml nebulized every 2 hours prn If no relief, add oxygen 2 liters/min and ipratropium 1-2 inhalations every 4-6 hours prn or 2.5 ml nebulized every 4 hours prn If relief, continue If improvement, continue If no relief, add fentanyl nebulizer 25 mcg in 2.5 ml NS every 2 hours prn. Consider adding oxygen 2 liters/min The sensation of air hunger. May be exhibited by gasping, accessory muscle involvement in breathing, tachypnea, discomfort. Palliative Care practice guidelines: These are to be used as general guidelines. Please review carefully before using. Please note the PO route is always the initial route when possible. Consider non-pharmacologic options (e.g. fans, relaxation, CPAP or BiPAP, physical comfort measures, relaxation)

9 November Fever Symptomatic Fever or Rigors Refer to signout to see goals of care. Workup needed? Source of infection is suspected by history or exam Treat symptomatically, especially end stage disease Consider workup and possible antibiotic therapy May refer to Cerner "Neutropenic Fever" care set for neutropenic patients Acetaminophen 650 mg PO/PR every 4 hours or 1,000 mg IV scheduled every 6 hrs scheduled x 24 hours (max 48 hrs, avoid other tylenol containing products) if symptomatic or temp > 101 PO Reassess after 24 hours If no relief, try Ibuprofen 400 mg PO or aspirin 650 mg PO or aspirin suppository 600 mg every 6 hours or ketorolac IV (15 mg) every 6 hrs x 24 hrs If no relief, consider Palliative Service consultation yesno A temperature of over (orally), (axillary), or (for patients with known neutropenia. Palliative Care practice guidelines: These are to be used as general guidelines. Please review carefully before using. Please note the PO route is always the initial route when possible.

10 November Hiccough Baclofen 5mg po every 6 hours prn, can increase to 10mg every 6hrs if CrCl >30 Can continue baclofen. Haloperidol 2 mg PO/Subcutaneous/IV Maintenance 2 mg PO three times/day Continue as needed Consider scheduling Metoclopramide 10 mg PO/IV every 6 hours prn Maintenance mg po 4 times/day Continue as needed If no relief, consider anesthesia consult for block Continue as needed No effect EffectIf no effect or unable to take PO Effect A spasmodic intermittent closure of the glottis following lowering of the diaphragm causing a short, sharp, inspiratory cough. Non-pharmacological treatment: Holding breath, mild irritation of nasopharynx Valsalva, sipping liquids slowly, 5 th vertebrae rubbing If GERD: maalox 30ml PO every 4 hours prn, can Start PPI on formulary Eg: esomeprazole 40mg daily Consider Gabapentin 300mg PO 3 times/day OR Chlorpromazine 25 mg PO 3 times/day Palliative Care practice guidelines: These are to be used as general guidelines. Please review carefully before using. Please note the PO route is always the initial route when possible.

11 November Oral Mucositis (without obvious infection) Sodium bicarbonate rinses OR 1:1 Isotonic saline/sodium bicarbonate rinses every 2 hours while awake If relief, continue rinses as needed. Reassess in 7 days. If no relief, start trivalent mouth wash (Benadryl, maalox, lidocaine mixture)5 ml swish/spit every hour OR swish/swallow every 4 hours PCA OPIOID, viscous lidocaine, topical cocaine. Contact oral surgery re laser therapy Consider Palliative Service consultation No relief after 24 hours Inflammation of the mucus membranes. Generally causes pain in the oral cavity and throat and exhibited by excessive drooling, spitting and mucus production. Evaluate for and treat thrush if present (see oral candidiasis algorithm); consider evaluating for oral HSV Palliative Care practice guidelines: These are to be used as general guidelines. Please review carefully before using. Please note the PO route is always the initial route when possible. Consider non-pharmacologic measures (e.g. removal of dentures; avoiding salty, acidic or dry foods; change PO to IV formulation as appropriate/able)

12 November Pruritus Establish probable cause: Consider medications**, liver injury, renal failure, skin irritants, neoplasm Hydroxyzine 10 mg every 6 hours PO prn If obstructive jaundice- cholestyramine 4gm PO every day before breakfast. Hydrocortisone/Pramoxine foam 4 times/day prn OR Diphenhydramine 25 mg PO/IV every 6 hours Improved after 24 hours, continue prn No improvement after 48 hours Increase cholestyramine to 4gm PO ac breakfast & dinner -Consider PO Rifampicin 150 mg daily & possible titration with monitoring of liver function & CYP450 drug interactions -Consider ondansetron 8mg iv qd or po q8h - If not on SSRI or SNRI anti-depressant, consider PO Sertraline 50 mg daily & titrate up to 100 mg after a week Consider Palliative Service consultation Severe itching. If opioid induced, trial another opioid – hydromorphone if currently on morphine or fentanyl if currently on hydromorphone Palliative Care practice guidelines: These are to be used as general guidelines. Please review carefully before using. Please note the PO route is always the initial route when possible.. Contact physician, consider naloxone infusion (2.5 mg in 250 ml, 4ml/hr & titrate to max. rate of 12 ml/hr) or opioid rotation. Also consider ondansetron 8mg po q8 or iv qd

13 13 Secretions Assess saliva Diminished saliva (xerostomia) Increased secretions without trach in an end-of-life (EOL) patient (Note: with trach, evaluate risk of obstruction from excessively dry secretions) Thick secretions in patients with good cough Guaifenesin 400 mg PO every 4 hours prn AND Increase fluid intake Encourage oral fluid intake and good oral care Use saliva substitute 1 application swish and spit prn dry mouth Use sugarless (xylitol-containing) candy or gum If history of radiation to head/neck Pilocarpine 5 mg PO tid, up to 10 mg tid if necessary If disturbing to pt/family, consider trial of scopolamine patch 1.5mg (onset in 12h) every 72 hours AND scopolamine 0.4 mg SQ/IV now and every 4 hours prn No relief If relief, continue treatment Add a second scopolamine patch every 72 hours OR Increase scopolamine to 0.6mg subcutaneous/IV every 4 hours prn OR Glycopyrrolate mg IV/SQ every 2-4h prn Consider Palliative service consultation Oral or airway lubrication. Increased secretions may cause excessive, noisy respirations. Decreased secretions may cause uncomfortable dry mouth. If patient unconscious, consider suction for accessible secretions Palliative Care practice guidelines: These are to be used as general guidelines. Please review carefully before using. Please note the PO route is always the initial route when possible. Increased secretions without trach in a non-EOL patient Glycopyrrolate mg PO tid (does not cross blood-brain barrier, lower risk for CNS toxicity) November 2014

14 14 Wound Odor Use room deodorizer For wound with drainage, apply absorptive dressing with wound cover using: Calcium alginate Gauze packing Foam dressing or thick pads for heavy drainage For dry wounds or bleeding risk, apply non- adherent (oil emulsion) gauze as first layer In the meantime, cleanse with normal saline or wound cleanser Consider topical 0.75% metronidazole gel twice daily (use systemic antibiotics only if evidence of deep wound infection) Continue A strong, noticeable, offensive smell emanating from a non-healing wound. Palliative Care practice guidelines: These are to be used as general guidelines. Please review carefully before using. Please note the PO route is always the initial route when possible.. Consult Wound Care Team

15 Evidence-Based References Delirium –Jackson, KC, Lipman, AG. Drug therapy for delirium in terminally ill patients. In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, Chichester, UK: John Wiley Sons, –Breitbart W, Marotta R, Platt MM, Weisman H, Derevenco M, Grau C, Corbera K, Raymond S, Lund S, Jacobson P. A double-blind trial of haloperidol, chlorpromazine, and lorazepam in the treatment of delirium in hospitalized AIDS patients. Am J.Psych1996 ;153: –Stahl, S. Essential Psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Applications 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press – Pasacreta, J., Minarik, P., & Nield-Anderson, L. (2011). Anxiety and depression. In B. R. Ferrell, & N. Coyle. (Eds.), Textbook of palliative nursing (3nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press... –LeGrand, S., Delirium in Palliative Medicine: A Review, Journal of Pain and Symptom Management Volume 44, Issue 4, October 2012, Pages 583–594 Alternative Route for Opioid Administration –Bruera E, Brenneis C, Michaud M, et al. Use of the subcutaneous route for the administration of narcotics in patients with cancer pain. Cancer 1988; 62: –Principles of analgesic use in the treatment of acute pain and cancer pain. American Pain Society, 6 th Edition, –Pereira J et al. Equianalgesic dose rations for opioids: a critical review and proposals for long-term dosing. J Pain Sym Manage 2001;22: –Gourlay GK. Treatment of cancer pain with transdermal fentanyl. The Lancet Oncology 2001; 2: Bladder Spasms Treatment –Herbison, P, Hay-Smith, J, Ellis, G, Moore, K. Effectiveness of anticholinergic drugs compared with placebo in the treatment of overactive bladder: systematic review. BMJ 2003; 326:841. –Nazarko L. Bladder pain from indwelling urinary catheterization: a case study. Br J Nurs 2007;16(9): –Cravens DD, Zweig S. Urinary catheter management. Am Fam Physician 2000;61(2): Bowel Treatment – stepped care program –Klaschik E, Nauck F, Ostgathe C. Constipation--modern laxative therapy. Support Care Cancer. 2003;11(11): Epub 2003 Sep –Locke, GR III, Pemberton, JH, Phillips, SF. AGA technical review on constipation. Gastroenterology 2000; 119:1766. Tarumi Y 1, Wilson MP, Szafran O, Spooner GR. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral docusate in the management of constipation in hospice patients. J Pain Symptom Manage Jan;45(1):2-13 November Palliative Care practice guidelines: These are to be used as general guidelines. Please review carefully before using. Please note the PO route is always the initial route when possible.

16 Evidence-Based References Dyspnea –Bruera E, Sweeny C and Ripamonti C. Dyspnea in patients with advanced cancer. In: Principles and Practice of Palliative Care and Supportive Oncology. 2 nd Ed Berger A, Portenoy R and Weissman DE (eds). Lippincott-Raven, –Chan KS et al. Palliative Medicine in malignant respiratory diseases. In Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine 3 rd Ed. Doyle D, Hanks G, Cherney N and Calman N. Oxford, 2005 –Fohr SA. The double effect of pain medication: separating myth from reality. J Pall Med 1998; 1: –Coyne, P. J., Lyne, M.E., & Watson, A. C. (2002). Symptom management in people with AIDS. American Journal of Nursing, 102(9), –Coyne, P., J., Viswanathan, R., and Smith, T., "Nebulized Fentanyl Citrate Improves Patients Perception of Breathing, Respiratory Rate, and Oxygen Saturation in Dyspnea." Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. February, 23 (2), 2002, pp –NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Palliative Care. V Available at NCCN.org Jensen D, Alsuhail A, Viola R, Dudgeon DJ, Webb KA, O'Donnell DE J Pain Symptom Manage. Inhaled fentanyl citrate improves exercise endurance during high-intensity constant work rate cycle exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Apr;43(4): Epub 2011 Dec 14.. –Sheikh Motahar Vahedi H 1, Mahshidfar B, Rabiee H, Saadat S, Shokoohi H, Chardoli M, Rahimi-Movaghar V. The adjunctive effect of nebulized furosemide in COPD exacerbation: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Respir Care Nov;58(11): doi: /respcare Epub 2013 Apr 30. –Smith TJ, Coyne P, French W, Ramakrishnan V, Corrigan P. Failure to accrue to a study of nebulized fentanyl for dyspnea: lessons learned. J Palliat Med Sep;12(9): doi: /jpm Fever –Zell JA, Chang JC. Neoplastic fever: a neglected paraneoplastic syndrome. Support Care Cancer Nov;13(11): –Oh DY, Kim JH, Kim DW, Im SA, Kim TY, Heo DS, Bang YJ, Kim NK Antibiotic use during the last days of life in cancer patients. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) Mar;15(1):74-9. –Larkin P. Pruritis, Fever, and Sweats. In: Ferrel BR, Coyle, N. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Nursing, 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010: –Bobb B, Lyckholm L, Coyne P. Fever and Sweats. In: Walsh D, Caraceni AT, Fainsinger R, et al., eds. Palliative Medicine. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier, 2008: November Palliative Care practice guidelines: These are to be used as general guidelines. Please review carefully before using. Please note the PO route is always the initial route when possible.

17 Evidence-Based References Hiccough –Kolodzik PW, Eilers, MA: Hiccups (singultus): Review and approach to management. Ann Emerg Med 1991; 20: –Rousseau, P. Hiccups. Southern Med J 1995; 2: –Lewis J. Hiccups: Causes and cures. J Clin Gastro 1985; 7: Mucositis –Dodd MJ, et al. Radiation-induced mucositis: a randomized clinical trial of micronized sucralfate versus salt & soda mouthwashes. Cancer Invest. 2003;21(1): –Shih A, Miaskowski C, Dodd MJ, Stotts NA, MacPhail L. A research review of the current treatments for radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum Aug;29(7): Links –Berger AM and Kilroy TJ. Oral Complications. in DeVita V et al (eds) Cancer: Principles and Practices of Oncology. 6 th edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins –Rubenstein, EB, Peterson, DE, Schubert, M, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of cancer therapy-induced oral and gastrointestinal mucositis. Cancer 2004; 100: –Epstein, JB, Schubert, MM. Oropharyngeal mucositis in cancer therapy. Review of pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. Oncology (Huntingt) 2003; 17:1767. –Lalla RV1, Bowen J, Barasch A, Elting L, Epstein J, Keefe DM, McGuire DB, Migliorati C, Nicolatou-Galitis O, Peterson DE, Raber-Durlacher JE, Sonis ST, Elad S; Mucositis Guidelines Leadership Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer and International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO). MASCC/ISOO clinical practice guidelines for the management of mucositis secondary to cancer therapy. Cancer May 15;120(10): doi: /cncr Epub 2014 Feb 25. –Jan E Clarkson, Helen V Worthington,*, Susan Furness, Martin McCabe, Tasneem Khalid, Stefan Meyer. Interventions for treating oral mucositis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. 31 MAY DOI: / CD pub4 Pruritus –Beuers U, Boberg KM, Chapman RW, et al. EASL clinical practice guidelines: management of cholestatic liver diseases. J Hepatol 2009;51: –Alan B. Fleisher, Jr and Jason R. Michaels. Pruritus. In: Principles & Practice of supportive Oncology. Eds: Ann Berger, Russell K. Portenoy, David E. Weissman. Lippincott-Raven Publishers Philadelphia 1998; –Krajnik M and Zylicz. Understanding pruritis in systemic disease. J Pain Symp Manage 2001; 21: –Mayo MJ, Handem I, Saldana S, et al. Sertraline as first line treatment for cholestatic pruritis. Hepatology 2007;45: –NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Adult Cancer Pain. V Available at NCCN.org. –Tejesh Patel, Gil Yosipovitch: Therapy of Pruritis. Expert Opin Pharmacother. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 July 1. Published in final edited form as: Expert Opin Pharmacother July; 11(10): 1673–1682. doi: / PMCID: PMC –Martin Steinhoff, Ferda Cevikbas, Akihiko Ikoma, Timothy G. Berger. Pruritis: Management Algorithms and Experimental Therapies. Semin Cutan Med Surg June; 30(2): 127–137. doi: /j.sder November Palliative Care practice guidelines: These are to be used as general guidelines. Please review carefully before using. Please note the PO route is always the initial route when possible.

18 Evidence-Based References Secretions –Wilders H, Menten J. Death rattle: prevalence, prevention and treatment. J Pain Symptom Manage 2002; 23: –Cooke, C, Ahmedzai, S, Mayberry, J. Xerostomia--a review. Palliat Med 1996; 10:284. –Napenas JJ, Brennan MT, Fox PC. Diagnosis and treatment of xerostomia (dry mouth). Odontology 2009;97: –Richardson, PS, Phipps, RJ. The anatomy, physiology, pharmacology and pathology of tracheobronchial mucus secretion and the use of expectorant drugs in human disease. Pharmacol Ther [B] 1978; 3:441. –LeVeque FG, Montogomery M, Potter D, et al. A multicenter, randomized, double ‐ blind, placebo ‐ controlled, dose ‐ titration study of oral pilocarpine for treatment of radiation ‐ induced xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients. J Clin Oncol 1993;11:1124 ‐ 31. –Johnson JT, Ferretti GA, Nethery WJ, et al. Oral pilocarpine for post ‐ irradiation xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 1993;329:390 ‐ 5. –NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Palliative Care. V Available at: NCCN.org. –Bennett M, Lucas V, Brennan M, et al. Using anti-muscarinic drugs in the management of death rattle: evidence-based guidelines for palliative care. Palliat Med 2002;16: –Clark, K; Butler, M, Noisy respiratory secretions at the end of life. Current Opinion in Supportive & Palliative Care: June Volume 3 - Issue 2 - p 120–124 Wound Odor –Paul Walker. The pathophysiology and management of pressure ulcers. In: Topics in Palliative Care, Volume 3. Eds. Russell K. Portenoy and Eduardo Bruera. Oxford University Press Pp –Grocott P. The palliative management of fungating malignant wounds. J Wound Care. 2000; 9 (1):4-9. –Newman V, Allwood M, Oakes RA. The use of metronidazole gel to control the smell of malodorous lesions. Palliat Med. 1989; 3: –Bates-Jensen, B.M. (2006). Skin disorders: Pressure ulcers – assessment and management. In B.R. Ferrell, & N. Coyle (Eds.), Textbook of palliative nursing (2nd ed., pp ). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. –Bates-Jensen B.M., Seaman, S. & Early, L. (2006). Skin disorders: Tumor necrosis, fistules, and stoma. In B.R. Ferrell, & N. Coyle (Eds.), Textbook of palliative nursing (2nd ed., pp ). New York, NY: Oxford University Press –Grocott, P., & Dealey, C. (2004). Symptom management: Nursing aspects. In D. Doyle, G. Hanks, N. Cherney, & K. Calman (Eds.) Oxford textbook of palliative medicine (3rd ed., pp ). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. –Mamedio C, Anduciolo C, Nobre MRC. A systematic review of topical treatments to control odor of malignant fungating wounds. J Pain Symptom Manage 2010; 39: –Patel B, Cox-Hayley D. Managing wound odor #218. J Palliat Med 2010;13: November Palliative Care practice guidelines: These are to be used as general guidelines. Please review carefully before using. Please note the PO route is always the initial route when possible.


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