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The Financial Planning Process

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Presentation on theme: "The Financial Planning Process"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Financial Planning Process
Chapter 1 The Financial Planning Process

2 Learning Objectives Explain why personal financial planning is so important. Describe the five basic steps of personal financial planning. Set your financial goals.

3 Learning Objectives 4. Explain the personal finance lessons learned in the recent economic downturn. 5. Explain how career management and education can determine your income level. 6. List ten principles of personal finance. 7. Understand that achieving financial security is more difficult for women.

4 Introduction It’s easier to spend than to save.
Personal financial planning is an ongoing process—it changes as your financial situation and position in life change. Manage and control your finances with a personal financial plan. It helps you achieve financial and lifestyle goals.

5 Importance of Personal Financial Planning
Accumulate wealth for special expenses Save for retirement “Cover your assets” Invest intelligently Minimize payments to Uncle Sam

6 Five basic steps to personal financial planning
Evaluate your financial health Define your financial goals Develop a plan of action Implement your plan Review your progress, reevaluate, and revise your plan

7 Step 1: Evaluate Your Financial Health
Examine your current financial situation. How much money do you make? How much are you spending and on what? Use careful record keeping to track finances and spending.

8 Step 2: Define Your Financial Goals
Write or formalize your goals. An unwritten goal is simply a Dream! Attach a financial cost to each one. When will you need the money to achieve the goal? Analyze and revise your goals.

9 Step 3: Develop a Plan of Action
Flexibility: Plan for life changes and the unexpected happens. Liquidity Immediate use of cash by quickly and easily (costlessly) converting an asset. Protection Prepare for the unexpected with insurance. Minimize Taxes Keep more of what you earn.

10 Step 4: Implement Your Plan
Stick to it. Use your financial plan as a road map to achieve goals. Keep goals in mind and work towards them.

11 Step 5: Review, Reevaluate, and Revise
Review progress. Reevaluate and revise for changes in your life. Be prepared to formulate a different plan to meet your goals.

Short-term—within 1 year Intermediate-term—1 to 10 years Long-term—more than 10 years

13 Short–Term Goals Accumulate Emergency Funds Equaling at least 3 Months’ Living Expenses Pay Off Bills and Credit Cards Purchase Insurance Purchase a smallish Major Item Finance a Vacation

14 Intermediate-Term Goals
Save for Older Child’s College Save for a Down Payment Pay Off Major Debt Finance Large Items (Weddings) Purchase a Vacation Home

15 Long-Term Goals Save for Younger Child’s College
Purchase Retirement Home Create a Retirement Fund to Maintain Current Standard of Living Take Care of Elderly Family Members Start a Business

16 Figure 1.3 A Typical Individual’s Financial Life Cycle

17 Stage 1 The Early Years—A Time of Wealth Accumulation
Prior to age 54 Develop a regular savings pattern: How much can be saved? Is that enough? Where should the savings be invested? Cost of raising children

18 Stage 2 Approaching Retirement—The Golden Years
Transition years between ages Depends on preparation for retirement. Reassess financial goals and decisions— retirement, insurance protection and estate planning.

19 Stage 3 The Retirement Years
After age 65, live off savings Retirement age depends on savings. Less risky investment strategy Consider extended nursing home protection. Estate planning decisions and documents are critical.

20 Ten Principles of Personal Finance
The foundation of personal finance.

21 Principle 1: The Best Protection Is Knowledge
Understand the basics of personal finance. Take responsibility for your lifetime financial plan. Seek professional advice wisely.

22 Principle 2: Nothing Happens Without a Plan
Easier to think about spending than about saving. Saving must be planned. Putting off a financial plan means goals are harder to achieve.

23 Principle 3: The Time Value of Money
Money received today is worth more than money received in the future. Understand how savings and investments grow over time Understand compound interest. Understand spending now and paying later

24 Principle 4: Taxes Affect Personal Finance Decisions
Know the effect of taxes on the rate of return of investments. Compare investment alternatives on an after-tax basis. Understand tax laws.

25 Principle 5: Stuff Happens, or the Importance of Liquidity
Plan for unexpected events Have money or liquid funds available Liquid funds should cover 3 to 6 months of living expenses

26 Principle 6: Waste Not, Want Not - Smart Spending Matters
Differentiate want from need Do homework before the purchase Make the purchase at the best price Maintain your purchase

27 Principle 7: Protect Yourself Against Major Catastrophes
Have the right kind of insurance before a tragedy occurs. Know your insurance policy coverage. Focus insurance on major catastrophes which can be financially devastating.

28 Principle 8: Risk and Return Go Hand in Hand
Saving and investing grows money. Investors demand a minimum return above anticipated inflation. Investors demand higher return for added risk. Diversification by spreading money in several investments reduces risk.

29 Figure 1.7 The Risk-Return Trade-Off

30 Principle 9: Mind Games, Your Financial Personality, and Your Money
Behavioral biases lead to big financial mistakes. Mental accounting impacts financial decisions. “Sunk cost effect” pours good money after bad money because of bias.

31 Principle 10: Just Do It! Taking the first step towards your goals is difficult. The following steps become easier. First step is to pay yourself first—save then spend. Saving early can make a big difference.

32 Women and Personal Finance
Tougher to achieve financial security. Generally earn less. Less likely to have pensions. Qualify for less Social Security. Live longer than men. Planning for financial independent more difficult for them than it is for men.

33 Women and Personal Finance
Need to take charge of their money and financial future. Acquire knowledge. Make things happen—need a plan. See a financial planner about specific concerns.

34 Summary Personal financial planning allows you to manage your finances and achieve lifecycle financial goals. There are five basic steps to personal financial planning. Set your financial goals in order to achieve them with a financial plan.

35 Summary An emergency fund can help protect yourself in the event of an economic downturn. The more educated your are, the more you will earn. There are ten basic principles on which personal financial planning is built. Planning is especially important for the financial future of women.

36 Figure 1.6 How Long Households Go Without Income Before Hardship Sets In

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