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2002 Guidelines for the Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Neutropenic Patients with Cancer Walter T, Hughes, Donald Armstrong, Gerald P. Bodey, Eric J. Bow,

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Presentation on theme: "2002 Guidelines for the Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Neutropenic Patients with Cancer Walter T, Hughes, Donald Armstrong, Gerald P. Bodey, Eric J. Bow,"— Presentation transcript:

1 2002 Guidelines for the Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Neutropenic Patients with Cancer Walter T, Hughes, Donald Armstrong, Gerald P. Bodey, Eric J. Bow, Arthur E. Brown, Thierry Calandra, Ronald Feld, Philip A. Pizzo, Kenneth V. I. Rolston, Jerry L. Shenep, and Lowell S. Young St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee; Memorial Sloan- Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, and Kuzell Institute for Arthritis, San Francisco California; University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, and Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Canada; and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland

2 Management of Antibiotic Regimen during the First Week of Therapy

3 At least 3-5 days required to determine efficacy After which, decisions based on: –Bacteremia or pneumonia –Resolution of fever –Deterioration of condition Recent analysis of 488 patients, median time to clinical response was 5-7 days * –May wait 5 days to make any changes *Elting LS, Rubenstein EB, Rolston K, et al. Time to clinical response: an outcome of antibiotic therapy of febrile neutropenia with implications for quality and cost of care. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:3699-706

4 Patient Afebrile within 3-5 Days of Treatment

5 If causative microbe identified, regimen may be changed –Optimal treatment with minimal adverse effects, lowest cost Broad-spectrum coverage maintained –Prevent breakthrough bacteremia Continued minimum 7 days, or negative culture, and patient free of significant symptoms Desirable for neutrophil count >500 cells/mm 3

6 In absence of discernible cause, compliant adults may be changed after >2 days –IV therapy to oral ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid * Controlled studies done with inpatients –Cannot be assured similar results if patients are discharged Comprehensive assessment essential for each patient *Freifeld A, Marchigiani D, Walsh T et al. A double- blind comparison of empirical oral and intravenous antibiotic therapy for low risk febrile patients with neutropenia during cancer chemotherapy. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 305-11.

7 Afebrile within first 3-5 days of treatment No etiology identified Etiology identified Adjust to most appropriate treatment Low riskHigh risk Continue same antibiotics Change to ciprofloxacin + amoxicillin- clavulanate (adults) or cefixime (child) Discharge

8 Persistent Fever throughout the First 3-5 Days of Treatment

9 Nonbacterial infection Resistant bacterial infection or slow to respond Emergence of second infection Inadequate serum and tissue levels of antibiotics Drug fever Cell-wall deficient bacteremia* Infection at an avascular site *Woo PC, Wong SS, Lum PN, et al. Cell wall-deficient bacteria and culture- negative febrile episodes in bone marrow recipients. Lancet 2001;357:675-9

10 Reassessment Review of all previous culture results Meticulous physical examination Chest radiography Ascertain status of IV lines Specimens of specific sites of infection Diagnostic imaging of any organ Determination of serum concentrations Ultrasonography and high-resolution CT

11 If reassessment does not yield a cause, 1 of 3 choices should be made: –Continue with initial antibiotics If no discernible changes in patient’s condition Especially if neutropenia expected to resolve within ensuing 5 days –Change or add antibiotics –Add an antifungal drug

12 Change or add antibiotics If evidence of progressive disease or complication Add appropriate antibiotic or change to different antibiotic Vancomycin considered if not included in initial treatment Consideration to withdrawal if included in initial treatment –Minimize anti-bacterial resistance

13 Add an antifungal drug Up to 1/3 febrile neutropenic patients who do not respond to 1-week antibiotics have systemic fungal infections* –Candida or Aspergillus in most cases Effort made to determine whether systemic fungal infection exists Lipid formulations of amphotericin B can be used as alternatives to amphotericin B deoxycholate* *EORTC International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Project Group. Empiric antifungal therapy in febrile granulocytopenic patients. Am J Med 1989;86:668-72

14 Persistent fever during first 3-5 days of treatment Reassess patient on days 3-5 If no change in patient’s condition (consider stopping vancomycin) Continue initial antibiotics If progressive disease If criteria for vancomycin are met Change or add antibiotics If febrile through days 5- 7 and resolution of neutropenia not imminent Antifungal drug, with or without antibiotic change

15 Duration of Antimicrobial Therapy

16 Most important determinant is neutrophil count Therapy may be stopped if: –Neutrophil count >500 cells/mm 3 for 2 consecutive days –No infection identified after 3 days –Patient afebrile for >48 hours Antibiotics stopped after 5-7 afebrile days if: –Neutropenic patients who appear healthy –Low risk category –No discernible infectious lesions –No radiographic or laboratory evidence of infection Continuous administration in: –Patients with profound neutropenia (<100 cells/mm 3 ) –Mucous membrane lesions –Unstable vital signs –Other identified risk factors Afebrile by Days 3-5

17 Afebrile by days 3-5 ANC >500 cells/mm 3 for 2 consecutive days Stop antibiotics 48h after afebrile + ANC >500 cells/mm3 ANC <500 cells/mm 3 by day 7 Initial low risk Clinically well Stop when afebrile for 5-7 days Initial high risk ANC <100 cells/mm3 Mucositis Unstable signs Continue antibiotics

18 Persistent Fever Febrile after recovery of neutrophil count to >500 cells/mm 3 –Despite receipt of broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy –Reassessment for undiagnosed fungal, mycobacterial and viral infections –Antibiotic therapy can be stopped 4-5 days after neutrophil count reaches >500 cells/mm 3 –Ultrasound, CT or MRI abdomen to detect systemic fungal infections

19 Persistent fever ANC >500 cells/mm3 Stop 4-5 days after ANC >500 cells/mm3 Reassess ANC <500 cells/mm3 Continue for 2 weeks Reassess Stop if no disease and condition is stable

20 Duration of Amphotericin B Therapy Course of antifungal therapy determined by: –Causative agent –Extent of disease May be discontinued when: –Neutropenia has resolved –Patient clinically well –CT abdomen and chest reveals no suspicious lesions 2 weeks of daily doses for: –Clinically well with prolonged neutropenia –No discernible lesions Continuation with antibiotics and amphotericin B throughout neutropenic episode in ill or high risk patients

21 Other Drugs

22 Use of Antiviral Dugs Usually no indication for empirical use –Only if there is clinical or laboratory evidence of viral disease Acyclovir indicated if skin or mucous membrane lesions due to herpes simplex or varicella- zoster* –More favourable febrile response than in untreated patients Cytomegalovirus uncommon cause, except in bone marrow transplantation –Ganciclovir or foscarnet *Baglin TP, Gray JJ, Marcus RE, Wreghitt JG. Antibiotic resistant fever associated with herpes simplex virus infection in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancy. J Clin Pathol 1989;42:1255-8

23 Use of Colony-Stimulating Factors G-CSF (filgrastim) or granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor (sargramostim)* –Consistently shorten duration of neutropenia –Have not consistently or significantly reduced other measures of febrile morbidity –No decrease in infection-related mortality rates Not recommended for routine use to treat febrile or afebrile neutropenic patients *Anaissie EJ, Vartivarian S, Bodey GP, et al. Radomized comparison between antibiotics alone and antibiotics plus granulocyte-macropahe colony-stimulating factor in cancer patients with fever and neutropenia. Am J Med 1996;100:17-23

24 Granulocyte Transfusions May be useful in: –Profound neutropenia where documented causative bacteria cannot be controlled with optimal antibiotic therapy or G-CSF –Cases of severe uncontrollable fungal infections Significant toxicities –Transmission of CMV –Alloimmunization associated with fever –Graft-versus-host reactions –Progressive platelet refractoriness –Respiratory insufficiency with concomitant amphotericin B No specific indications for standard use of granulocyte transfusions Hubel K, Dale DC, Engert A, Liles WC. Current status of granulocyte (neutrophil) transfusion therapy for infectious diseases. J Infect Dis 2001;183:321-8

25 Comparison with Practice in Singapore

26 SingaporeIDSA Definition Temperature greater than 38 o C ANC <1000 cells/mm 3 Temperature greater than 38.3 o C ANC <500 cells/mm 3 Initial Treatment IV ceftazidimeCefepime, ceftazidime or carbapenem If obvious skin source, add IV cloxacillin, ciproflozacin or clindamycin -- If patient looks unwell, add IV gentamicin Aminoglycoside plus antipseudomonal penicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime, or carbapenem

27 Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Afebrile Neutropenic Patients

28 Not routine because of emerging antibiotic resistance Except trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to prevent Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis* Fluconazole^ and acyclovir or ganciclovir for patients undergoing allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation Should be administered for as short a period as possible, to as few patients as possible *Hughes WT, Rivera GK, Schell MJ, et al. Successful intermittent chemoprophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis. N Engl J Med 1987;316:1627-32 ^Rotstein C, Bow EG, Laverdiere M, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of fluconazole prophylaxis for neutropenic patients. Clin Infect Dis 1999;28:331-40

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