2Assessment Planning Process Analyze the environmentAgency, clients, TR program, staff & resourcesDefine parametersFunction, content, implementation strategySelect or develop assessmentEstablish assessment protocolsTrain staff & interns on protocolsPeterson & Stumbo, 2000
3Assessment Implementation Process Review assessment protocolPrepare for assessmentAdminister assessment to clientAnalyze or score assessment resultsInterpret results for placement into programsDocument results of assessmentReassess client as necessary/monitor progressPeterson & Stumbo, 2000
4Selection of Assessment Procedure Determine the purposeSpecify the exact content to be coveredIdentify other selection criteriaSearch assessment resourcesCompare possible procedures to selection criteriaSelect assessment
5Reality“In actual practice, more therapeutic recreation specialists rely on agency-specific assessments than on nationally available tests.”Peterson & Stumbo, 2000, p. 221Why?Content of commercial assessments rarely matches content of programs or agencies
6Rationale for Teaching Development to Undergraduate Students “Many individuals feel that assessment development and validation is a complex enough process that it should not be advocated as a task for the typical TRS. Individuals with bachelor’s degrees may not have the conceptual and statistical expertise for development and validation. Another view states that TRSs are more likely to develop their own assessments (good or bad) than buy commercial assessments so instruction in correct methodology is important.” (Stumbo, 2002, p. 163)
7Developing an Assessment Select the assessment contentComes from content of programBased on current literature, needs of clients, and TR models or theoriesDevelop list of programs designed for a specific groupDefine client goals
8Developing an Assessment Determine the assessment purposePlacement into programsBasic screening, identifying problems, narrow problems, reassess problemsUnderstand client groupDisabilities, education, backgrounds, etc.
9Developing an Assessment Determine type of assessmentInterviews, observations, self-administered surveys, record reviewsHow many clients assessed?How much staff time is available for assessment?What are the skills of staff?What will yield the best information to place in programs?
10Developing an Assessment Select the client outcomes to be assessedOutline the assessment contentMake a two-way chartMake sure assessment is representative of content of programSee p. 170
11Developing an Assessment Select the type of items to useClosed-ended or open-endedYes/no, true/false, matching, multiple choice, rating, & ranking = closedFill-in-the-blank, short answer, & extended answer = openMatch the items to specific client outcomes
12Developing an Assessment Make the final selection of itemsSee Stumbo, 2002, pNorm groupValidity & reliability
13Developing an Assessment Make manual/protocolDirections for administration, scoring, interpretation, and reportingReliability & validitySee Stumbo, 2002, pPilot test & make revisions