Three Best Predictors of Reading Before School Entry Print Letter Identification Concepts about Print Alphabetic Principle Phonological Awareness Language/Vocabulary Verbal Memory for Stories Overall Expressive Vocabulary Snow, Burns, & Griffin. 1998.
National Early Literacy Panel (2004) Organizes Reading Predictors This Way: Oral Language Vocabulary Listening Comprehension Alphabetic Knowledge Knowledge of letters Phonological Awareness Print Knowledge Environmental print Concepts about print Invented Spelling 6
7 Two Additional Predictors of Reading (Reported in Neuman & Dickinson) Joint (Dialogic) Parent-Child Storybook Reading Regular, meaningful, intimate, social, enjoyable, interactive Bus, 2001; Leseman & DeJong, 1998; Senechal, Lefevre, Thomas, & Daley, 1998) Family DispositionToward Reading Family motivated to read (Bus, 2001; Whitehurst & Lonigan, 2001)
Vocabulary Acquisition Begins Early Pre-school vocabulary size is highly predictive of reading success (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997). 3-year-olds have heard 10-30 million words (Hart & Risely).
Children who hear 10 million words are not acquiring words fast enough to sustain them as successful readers (Snow, Tabors, & Dickinson, 2001) Words children hear and use from birth to age 5 are words they will comprehend as readers in elementary school.
Children encounter reading difficulties in 3rd and 4th grade if texts use unfamiliar words (Snow, Tabors, & Dickinson, 2001). Children’s spoken vocabularies need to be about 2 years ahead of their reading vocabularies to comprehend words they can decode.
11 Children Learn New Words... In daily face-to-face communication with attentive adults As active, valued members of a speech community In predictable sequences
12 Children Learn New Words... Gradually, in small increments. Children must hear new words many times in many contexts (Nagy & Scott). Through action and experience (Nagy & Scott).
13 Children Learn New Words... Continually. At any given time a child is likely to be learning 2000-3000 root word meanings: Jump---> jumps, jumping, jumped, jumpy (Biemiller, 2001).
Think about it The English language contains 500,000 words, yet only 15,000 words are used in everyday speech, and only 7,000 words on television. (Kropp, 2000)
15 How Books Help “When children look at picture books, the process of meaning making is similar to the cognitive efforts to construct meaning from printed words.” (Paris & Paris, 2003) Conversation about books builds vocabulary and literacy knowledge (Dickinson & Tabors, 2001; Hargrave & Senechal, 2000)
Four GRC Content Areas Comprehension Phonological Awareness Alphabetic Principle Concepts about Print
GRC Content Areas & Topics Comprehension Vocabulary Connection Retelling Prediction Phonological Awareness Rhyming Alliteration Segmentation Alphabetic Principle Name Recognition Name Writing Letter Recognition Letter-Sound Correspondence Concepts about Print Identifying Book Parts Orienting Books for Reading Distinguishing Between Pictures and Words Understanding the Direction of Text 17
Child Development Principles and Literacy Learning Talk about two examples of how children change and grow in comprehension, phonological awareness, alphabetic principle, or concepts about print. Discuss how and when you might engage all children in your classroom with literacy activities at their level of development.
20 Level 1: Early Emergent--Exploration Children explore books, sounds, letters; use words to convey what they see and experience.
21 Level 2: Emergent--Awareness C Children pay attention to book parts, print, word sounds, letters; use words to convey meaning and talk about the future and the past
22 Level 3: Competent Emergent- Application Children Children try out own theories as they “read” books, experiment with word sounds, recognize and use words to write. Their growing vocabularies enable them to express increasingly complex ideas and narratives.
Growing Readers Delivery System Small group activities that support active participatory learning. Supportive adult-child interactions. Common classroom materials. Short activities and teaching strategies to use throughout the daily routine.
What’s In the Growing Readers Kit Teacher’s Guide Using Growing Readers Letter Links Online Content Area Dividers Teaching Strategies Cards Quick Look Cards Activity Cards Vocabulary Cards Activity Support Cards
Letter Links Online Letter Links is a name-learning system that pairs a child’s printed name with a letter- linked picture of an object that starts with the same letter and sound.
Books in the Growing Readers Curriculum 1.American Heritage Picture Dictionary 2.Arrow to the Sun: A Pueblo Indian Tale, by Gerald Mc Dermott 3.A Chair for My Mother, by Vera B. Williams 4.Good Night, Gorilla, by Peggy Rathmann 5.Kipper’s A to Z: An Alphabet Adventure, by Mick Inkpen 6.Night Noises, by Mem Fox 7.Rosie’s Walk, by Pat Hutchins 8.The Story of Ferdinand, by Munro Leaf 9.Tomie dePaola’s Mother Goose
Criteria for Growing Readers Book Selection Complexity Story Structure Cultural and Ethnic Diversity Illustration Quality
39 Step 1: Welcome Children Read aloud to children--so children begin talking about books.
40 Step 2: Assess Literacy At the end of the 1st month--when children feel sure of their surroundings --- assess literacy knowledge Use the ELSA ---to find out about comprehension, phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, print concepts.
41 Step 3: Carry Out GRC Activities Plan to involve all children in 3 small-group literacy activities per week. Select activities to match children’s development. Review each activity ahead of time.
42 Step 3: Carry Out Activities Review each book ahead of time: illustrations, story structure, characters, big ideas. Gather materials ahead of time. Meet in a comfortable spot--where children can see and easily handle books and materials.
43 Step 3: Carry Out Activities Make comments and observations to elicit child talk. Proceed at a leisurely pace to encourage children to look, think, and talk.
44 Step 3: Carry Out Activities interactiveconversational Make story reading and other small-group activities interactive and conversational. The more children talk and do, the more they will comprehend and learn. How will you do this?
45 Step 3: Carry Out Activities Make GRC books and materials accessible to children throughout the day. Discuss and evaluate each small group. Use GRC short activities and teaching strategies throughout the day.
46 Step 4: Reassess Literacy Re-administer the ELSA at the end of the year. Compare children’s fall and spring results. Share children’s literacy growth with their families.
47 Monitor Progress The Individual and Class Progress Profiles
Wordless Picture Books 1.Look at the story provided, and tell the story together. 2.What enabled you to make sense of your book? 3.How did the pictures help to tell the story?
Story Analysis of Good Night Gorilla Pairs Activity: 1.What objects are illustrated? 2.What actions are illustrated? 3.Who are the characters? 4.What roles do they play? 5.How do they move the story along? 6.How is the story structures? 7.What idea, or ideas are conveyed?
Scaffolding Look at the three Small Group Activity Connection Cards for levels One, Two, and Three for Good Night Gorilla. If you have children who are developmentally at each of those levels in your small group, which strategies will you try to accommodate all three the developmental levels in your small group activity?
Using Narrative Storybooks In your table group, choose one of the narrative storybooks to work with. Review the definition of Prediction Make a list of vocabulary words Do a story analysis of the book From the quick look card, choose one of the small group activities to conduct Plan the activity together
Narrative Storybook Activity Review How did the story analysis assist you with the small group activity? What did you learn from the activity about characters, objects, and actions in the story?
I Spy Make a list of the words you used during your “I Spy” game. In which parts of your daily routine could you play “I Spy”?
Segmentation The act of isolating sounds in a spoken word by separately pronouncing each sound in order.
Looking at Nursery Rhymes With a partner, look at the Activity Support Card about Rhyming Story selection. How does the card describe developmental levels? Choose two rhymes that you know, and decide which developmental level they represent. Find the rhymes in the Participant Guide on page 20. Discuss the developmental levels of those rhymes.
Topics for Alphabetic Principle Name Recognition Name Writing Letter Recognition Letter-Sound Correspondence
Alphabetic Principle 1.Realizing that printed text such as one’s name conveys meaning. 2.Hearing sounds that make up words. 3.Recognizing alphabet letters, some fairly readily. 4.Connecting some letter sounds to some letters 5.Attending in particular to the letters and letter sounds in one’s own name. 6.Beginning to understand the idea that a word such as one’s own name is a consistent set of letters.
Concepts about Print Books have specific parts. Books are held right side up. Books are read from front to back. Print is different from pictures. Print carries a message. Print flows from left to right, top to bottom. Print has a beginning and an ending.
Applying What I Know From the Growing Readers Cards, choose 3 activities that you could use in the classroom right away. Share your ideas with your table group.