5Three Best Predictors of Reading Before School Entry PrintLetter IdentificationConcepts about PrintAlphabetic PrinciplePhonological AwarenessLanguage/VocabularyVerbal Memory for StoriesOverall Expressive VocabularySnow, Burns, & Griffin
6National Early Literacy Panel (2004) Organizes Reading Predictors This Way: Oral LanguageVocabularyListening ComprehensionAlphabetic KnowledgeKnowledge of lettersPhonological AwarenessPrint KnowledgeEnvironmental printConcepts about printInvented Spelling
8Vocabulary Acquisition Begins Early Pre-school vocabulary size is highly predictive of reading success(Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997).3-year-olds have heard million words (Hart & Risely).
9Children who hear 10 million words are not acquiring words fast enough to sustain them as successful readers (Snow, Tabors, & Dickinson, 2001) Words children hear and use from birth to age 5 are words they will comprehend as readers in elementary school.
10Children encounter reading difficulties in 3rd and 4th grade if texts use unfamiliar words (Snow, Tabors, & Dickinson, 2001).Children’s spoken vocabularies need to be about 2 years ahead of their reading vocabularies to comprehend words they can decode.
11Children Learn New Words... In daily face-to-face communication with attentive adultsAs active, valued members of a speech communityIn predictable sequences
12Children Learn New Words... Gradually, in small increments. Children must hear new words many times in many contexts (Nagy & Scott).Through action and experience (Nagy & Scott).
13Children Learn New Words... Continually. At any given time a child is likely to be learning root word meanings: Jump---> jumps, jumping, jumped, jumpy (Biemiller, 2001).
14Think about it The English language contains 500,000 words, yet only 15,000 words are used ineveryday speech, and only 7,000 words ontelevision. (Kropp, 2000)
15How Books Help “When children look at picture books, the process of meaning making issimilar to the cognitive efforts toconstruct meaning from printed words.”(Paris & Paris, 2003)Conversation about books buildsvocabulary and literacy knowledge(Dickinson & Tabors, 2001; Hargrave & Senechal, 2000)
17GRC Content Areas & Topics ComprehensionVocabularyConnectionRetellingPredictionPhonological AwarenessRhymingAlliterationSegmentationAlphabetic PrincipleName RecognitionName WritingLetter RecognitionLetter-Sound CorrespondenceConcepts about PrintIdentifying Book PartsOrienting Books for ReadingDistinguishing Between Pictures and WordsUnderstanding the Direction of Text
18Child Development Principles and Literacy Learning Talk about two examples of how children change and grow in comprehension, phonological awareness, alphabetic principle, or concepts about print.Discuss how and when you might engage all children in your classroom with literacy activities at their level of development.
20Level 1: Early Emergent--Exploration Children explore books, sounds, letters; use words to convey what they see and experience.
21Level 2: Emergent--Awareness Children pay attention to book parts, print, word sounds, letters; use words to convey meaning and talk about the future and the past
22Level 3: Competent Emergent- Application Children try out own theories as they “read” books, experiment with word sounds, recognize and use words to write. Their growing vocabularies enable them to express increasingly complex ideas and narratives.
23Growing Readers Delivery System Small group activities that support active participatory learning.Supportive adult-child interactions.Common classroom materials.Short activities and teaching strategies to use throughout the daily routine.
24What’s In the Growing Readers Kit Teacher’s Guide Using Growing Readers Letter Links Online Content Area Dividers Teaching Strategies Cards Quick Look Cards Activity Cards Vocabulary Cards Activity Support Cards
25Letter Links OnlineLetter Links is a name-learning system that pairs a child’s printed name with a letter- linked picture of an object that starts with the same letter and sound.
33Books in the Growing Readers Curriculum American Heritage Picture DictionaryArrow to the Sun: A Pueblo Indian Tale, by Gerald Mc DermottA Chair for My Mother, by Vera B. WilliamsGood Night, Gorilla, by Peggy RathmannKipper’s A to Z: An Alphabet Adventure, by Mick InkpenNight Noises, by Mem FoxRosie’s Walk, by Pat HutchinsThe Story of Ferdinand, by Munro LeafTomie dePaola’s Mother Goose
34Criteria for Growing Readers Book Selection ComplexityStory StructureCultural and Ethnic DiversityIllustration Quality
39Step 1: Welcome Children Read aloud to children--so children begin talking about books.
40Step 2: Assess LiteracyAt the end of the 1st month--when children feel sure of their surroundings --- assess literacy knowledgeUse the ELSA ---to find out about comprehension, phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, print concepts.
41Step 3: Carry Out GRC Activities Plan to involve all children in 3 small-group literacy activities per week.Select activities to match children’s development.Review each activity ahead of time.
42Step 3: Carry Out Activities Review each book ahead of time: illustrations, story structure, characters, big ideas.Gather materials ahead of time.Meet in a comfortable spot--where children can see and easily handle books and materials.
43Step 3: Carry Out Activities Make comments and observations to elicit child talk.Proceed at a leisurely pace to encourage children to look, think, and talk.
44Step 3: Carry Out Activities Make story reading and other small-group activities interactive and conversational. The more children talk and do, the more they will comprehend and learn. How will you do this?
45Step 3: Carry Out Activities Make GRC books and materials accessible to children throughout the day.Discuss and evaluate each small group.Use GRC short activities and teaching strategies throughout the day.
46Step 4: Reassess Literacy Re-administer the ELSA at the end of the year.Compare children’s fall and spring results.Share children’s literacy growth with their families.
47The Individual and Class Progress Profiles Monitor ProgressThe Individual and Class Progress Profiles
52Wordless Picture Books Look at the story provided, and tell the story together.What enabled you to make sense of your book?How did the pictures help to tell the story?
53Story Analysis of Good Night Gorilla Pairs Activity:What objects are illustrated?What actions are illustrated?Who are the characters?What roles do they play?How do they move the story along?How is the story structures?What idea, or ideas are conveyed?
54ScaffoldingLook at the three Small Group Activity Connection Cards for levels One, Two, and Three for Good Night Gorilla.If you have children who are developmentally at each of those levels in your small group, which strategies will you try to accommodate all three the developmental levels in your small group activity?
55Using Narrative Storybooks In your table group, choose one of the narrative storybooks to work with.Review the definition of PredictionMake a list of vocabulary wordsDo a story analysis of the bookFrom the quick look card, choose one of the small group activities to conductPlan the activity together
56Narrative Storybook Activity Review How did the story analysis assist you with the small group activity?What did you learn from the activity about characters, objects, and actions in the story?
57I Spy Make a list of the words you used during your “I Spy” game. In which parts of your daily routine could you play “I Spy”?
59SegmentationThe act of isolating sounds in a spoken word by separately pronouncing each sound in order.
60Looking at Nursery Rhymes With a partner, look at the Activity Support Card about Rhyming Story selection. How does the card describe developmental levels?Choose two rhymes that you know, and decide which developmental level they represent.Find the rhymes in the Participant Guide on page 20. Discuss the developmental levels of those rhymes.
61Topics for Alphabetic Principle Name Recognition Name Writing Letter Recognition Letter-Sound Correspondence
62Alphabetic PrincipleRealizing that printed text such as one’s name conveys meaning.Hearing sounds that make up words.Recognizing alphabet letters, some fairly readily.Connecting some letter sounds to some lettersAttending in particular to the letters and letter sounds in one’s own name.Beginning to understand the idea that a word such as one’s own name is a consistent set of letters.
64Concepts about Print Books have specific parts. Books are held right side up.Books are read from front to back.Print is different from pictures.Print carries a message.Print flows from left to right, top to bottom.Print has a beginning and an ending.
65Applying What I KnowFrom the Growing Readers Cards, choose 3 activities that you could use in the classroom right away. Share your ideas with your table group.