Presentation on theme: "FAMILY POLICY AND SHARED PARENTING P.hD. Mia Hakovirta M.Soc.SC. Minna Rantalaiho Turun yliopisto."— Presentation transcript:
FAMILY POLICY AND SHARED PARENTING P.hD. Mia Hakovirta (firstname.lastname@example.org) M.Soc.SC. Minna Rantalaiho (email@example.com)firstname.lastname@example.org@utu.fi Turun yliopisto Sosiaalipolitiikan laitos REASSESS conference 26-27 November, 2009 at SFI Reassess strand 2, Family change, public policies and birth-rates
2 Point of departure of the study Building up a family policy system has been based on the family of two parents living together (i.e., 'nuclear family') Contemporary family policy legislation is 'nuclear family' centered Family policy emphasises the idea of shared parenthood
3 The goals of this study How the idea of shared parenting shows up in Finnish family policy, when studying it from a 'post parental break-up' perspective? Finland in Nordic contex: comparing the Finnish case with Norway and Sweden Focusing on three kinds of entitlements: Child support Child maintenance Family leaves
4 The idea of shared parenting In the nuclear family commitment from the mother and the father to parenthood After parental break-up the care of the child is shared (equally) between both parents
5 Child benefit Norway and Finland: a lone parent receives an increase to the child benefit (not in Sweden) Norway and Sweden: child benefit can be split in two and paid to both parents Sweden Sweden: if parents have joint custody and child spends equal time with both parents Norway Norway: if parents have made a shared custody arrangement and the child spends at least 40 % of time with the other parent Finland: sharing of child benefit is not possible
6 Child support Sweden: The amount of time the child spends with each parent is taken into account when maintenance payments are determined Norway: As in Sweden. In addition, each parents' capability of providing maintenance is emphasised dual residence arrangement does not automatically lead to zero child support Finland: No formal directions. In 2007 the Ministry of Justice gave its recommendations (sceptical about the relation of child support to dual residence arrangement).
7 Child maintenance allowance Sweden and Norway: the maintenance allowance can be paid to both parents in dual residence situations (includes individual means- testing in both countries) Finland: always paid to the parent 'with care' (i.e., the parent sharing permanent address with the child)
8 Support of work-family combine Norway & Sweden: access to parental leave rights (e.g., father quota) concerns also parents who live separated; lone parent is entitled to maximum length of parental leave Sweden: gender equality bonus and cash-for-childcare sharable (requires dual residence arrangement and parents' agreement) Norway: cash-for-childcare can be shared (as for Sweden) Finland: work-family combine policies acknowledge only parents who live with the child sharing of parental leave is not possible in a dual-residence arrangement; two parent family has access to a longer parental leave compared to lone parent family; part-time parental leave concerns only two-parent families; etc.
9 FinlandSwedenNorway Child benefit Paid to parent with careParents can split and can be paid to both parents Child support Dual residence/ wide visitation right does not necessarily result to a situation where a parent is not ordered to pay child support; legal practices vary Child support not required from other parent if dual residence Emphasis on residence arrangement and each parents’ economy; dual residence/wide visitation right does not automatically lead to a situation where a parent is not ordered to pay child support Child maintenance Paid to parent with careCan be shared and paid to both parents Parental leaves Lone mothers have shorter parental leave; sharing of parental leave rights concerns only couples Access to leave rights does not depend on the family model Childcare leave (cash-for- childcare/CFCC) CfCC paid only to a parent who lives in the same address with the child CfCC can be paid to both parents if parents have dual residence
10 Summary & discussion In Norway and Sweden family related responsibilities in different family life contexts are clearly better acknowledged compared to Finland In Norway and Sweden equally shared parenting after separation has become ’mainstreamed’ in family policy – why not in Finland? In Norway and Sweden the interest to support active fatherhood from start is stronger compared to Finland Fatherhood (and shared parenthood) stays ’strong’ after divorce (?)