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Information Literacy Process Models Julia Bell Towson University ISTC 651.

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Presentation on theme: "Information Literacy Process Models Julia Bell Towson University ISTC 651."— Presentation transcript:

1 Information Literacy Process Models Julia Bell Towson University ISTC 651

2 12 Sampling Models 5-As 8Ws of Information Inquiry AGOPPE Big6 Building Blocks of Research FINDS Information Search Process I-Search Pathways to Knowledge The REACTS Taxonomy Research Cycle Super 3

3 5-As (Jukes) Promotes informational, technological, and media fluency Goal is to create and apply this knowledge within the context of real time, real life tasks Asking - key questions to be answered Accessing - relevant information Analyzing - the acquired information to turn it into knowledge Applying - the information to a task Assessing - the end result and the process (Information Age Inquiry, 2006a; Premiere Speakers Bureau, 2008)

4 8Ws of Information Inquiry (Lamb) Developed to bring together perspectives in library media, technology, and traditional content areas Focuses on the unique way students expresses themselves Alliteration used to capture the students’ perspective and foster interest Watching (Exploring) Wondering (Questioning) Webbing (Searching) Wiggling (Evaluating) Weaving (Synthesizing) Wrapping (Creating) Waving (Communicating) Wishing (Assessing) (Information Age Inquiry, 2006b; Johnson & Lamb, 2007)

5 AGOPPE (MCPS) Adopted throughout many school clusters within MCPS Not a linear sequence, but spiraling New questions arise as students find info--this requires more resources Must continually assess info gathered to determine if it meets the informational need Ask Questions Gather Information Organize Information Prepare and Produce Present Evaluate, Assess, and Reflect (Montgomery County Public Schools, 2007)

6 Big6 (Eisenberg & Berkowitz) The most widely known & used model Each step has two sub- stages which defines exactly what is expected of the student Not necessary to complete stages in linear order or spend a lot of time on each 1. Task Definition - Define the information problem - Identify information needed 2. Information Seeking Strategies - Determine all possible sources - Select the best sources 3. Location and Access - Locate sources (intellectually and physically) - Find information within sources 4. Use of Information - Engage (e.g., read, hear, view, touch) - Extract relevant information 5. Synthesis - Organize from multiple sources - Present the information 6. Evaluation - Judge the product (effectiveness) - Judge the process (efficiency) (Eisenberg & Berkowitz, 2008)

7 Building Blocks of Research (Abilock) Includes a description of information literacy, student skills and strategies, student outcomes, and curriculum and teaching design for each of the steps Focuses on core thinking- and problem-solving meta-skills across different disciplines Engaging Defining Initiating Locating Examining, Selecting, Comprehending, Assessing Recording, Sorting, Organizing, Interpreting Communicating, Synthesizing Evaluating (Information Age Inquiry, 2006c; NoodleTools, 2007)

8 FINDS (The Florida Department of Education, Library Media Services and the Florida Sunlink Project) Based on the literacy skills that are in the Florida standards Provides a framework for the application of these standards through a sequential research process Used statewide Common language Transferable Focus on the information need Investigate resources to look for an answer Note and evaluate facts Develop information into knowledge for a presentation Score presentation and search (Florida Department of Education. (2006; Space Coast Media Center, 2008)

9 Information Search Process (Carol Kuhlthau) Based on extensive observations of students Model of user’s holistic experience of research process Focuses on attitudinal and emotional aspects of the inquiry process Central idea: uncertainty increases and decreases during the process of information seeking Initiating a Research Assignment apprehension, uncertainty Selecting a Topic confusion, sometimes anxiety, brief elation, anticipation Exploring Information confusion, uncertainty, doubt, sometimes threat Formulating a Focus optimism, confidence in ability to complete task Collecting Information realization of extensive work to be done, confidence in ability to complete task, increased interest Preparing to Present sense of relief, sometimes satisfaction, sometimes disappointment Assessing the Process sense of accomplishment or sense of disappointment (Kuhlthau, 2008; Information Age Inquiry, 2006d)

10 I-Search (Macrorie; Joyce & Tallman) Students select topics of personal interest to build an understanding of research process The key is to work on meaningful projects Stresses metacognitive thinking Students keep logs and reflect on the experience Selecting a topic - exploring interests, discussing ideas, browsing resources Finding information - generating questions, exploring resources Using information - taking notes, analyzing materials Developing a final product - developing communications, sharing experiences (Information Age Inquiry, 2006e)

11 Pathways to Knowledge (Pappas &Tepe; Follet sponsored) Non-linear process continuously explore and reassess at each step Stresses the importance of questioning authentic learning, reflection and non-linearity Tied to constructivist (student centered) learning Appreciation and Enjoyment - examine the world Presearch - develop an overview; explore relationships Search - identify information providers; select information resources; seek relevant information Interpretation - interpret information Communication - apply information; share new knowledge Evaluation - evaluate process and product (Information Age Inquiry, 2006f; Library and Literary Miscellany, 2008)

12 The REACTS Taxonomy (Stipling & Pitts) Different from previous methods because it asks students to reflect on each step Focuses on: Critical thinking in the research process High level thinking that results in quality products Designed a 10 step research process for developing papers Ten Step Research Process 1. Choose a broad topic 2. Get an overview of the topic 3. Narrow the topic 4. Develop a thesis or statement of purpose 5. Formulate questions to guide research 6. Plan for research and production 7. Find / Analyze / Evaluate sources 8. Evaluate evidence / Take notes / Compile bibliography 9. Establish conclusions 10. Create and present final product REACTS Recall Explain Analyze Challenge Transform Synthesize (Information Age Inquiry, 2006g)

13 Research Cycle (McKenzie) Focuses on questioning Requires students to make decisions, create answers, and show independent judgment Students are information producers, not information gatherers Requires students to revise and rethink research questions throughout the process Forced to cycle back through model More skill = a less linear process Questioning Planning Gathering Sorting & Sifting Synthesizing Evaluating Reporting (McKenzie, 2000; Information Age Inquiry, 2006h)

14 Super 3 (Eisenberg & Berkowitz) Based upon the Big6 But simplified Fewer steps are less overwhelming for younger learners Plan Do Review Super 3Big6 Plan Task Definition Information Seeking Strategies Do Location and Access Use of Information Review Synthesis Evaluation (Information Age Inquiry, 2006i)

15 Narrowed Down

16 Elementary: why AGOPPE Provides: a methodical sequence for research in all curricular areas A framework with a common language A format that can be used repeatedly; over time it becomes intuitive Can be used as a linear process when first teaching young students the research process step-by-step Later introduce the idea of using it in a non-linear manor Steps are concrete and simple enough for young learners to understand and manage Students aren’t always aware they are performing these steps Ask Questions Gather Information Organize Information Prepare and Produce Present Evaluate, Assess, and Reflect (Montgomery County Public Schools, 2007)

17 Middle: why REACTS 10 detailed steps walk student through the complex research process Structure helpful for middle school students Can be modified to use for research projects other than papers Focus on critical thinking  high level thinking  quality products If only collect facts, produce recall-type work Need to integrate, conclude, and conceptualize so product will be a synthesis of info Reflection points ask students to evaluate step just completed Revise step until reflection question can be answered This keeps the student on the right track and focused (Information Age Inquiry, 2006g; CSU, 1997)

18 StepReflection Point Choose a broad topic Get an overview of the topic Narrow the topicIs my topic a good one? Develop a thesis or statement of purpose Does my thesis of statement of purpose represent an effective, overall concept for my research? Formulate questions to guide researchDo the questions provide a foundation for my research? Plan for research and productionIs the research / production plan workable? Find / Analyze / Evaluate sourcesAre my sources usable and adequate? Evaluate evidence / Take notes / Compile bibliography Is my research complete? Establish conclusions / Organize information into an outline Are my conclusions based on researched evidence? Does my outline logically organize conclusions and evidence? Create and present final product.Is my paper / project satisfactory?

19 High: why Research Cycle A more complex model Non-linear process encourages higher level thinking More skill= less linear Prepares students for college and real world a more accurate and realistic representation of research process Student produces info NOT consumes info Emphasis on questioning Have to reassess and rethink the research question throughout the process Leads to cycling through model before reporting Questioning Planning Gathering Sorting & Sifting Synthesizing Evaluating Reporting (McKenzie, 2000; Information Age Inquiry, 2006h)

20

21 Comparison of Steps

22 Comparison of Essential Characteristics

23 Scaffolding Simple, straightforward steps are a good to initially teach the research process As students develop more skill… The process becomes less linear and students start to reassess info gathered Students need less support from teachers Leads to increased metacognition as students become more aware that they are performing these steps Provides a foundation for later models to build on Builds on skills learned in AGOPPE As research topics become more complex, this model walks students through the process Metacognition: reflection points encourage reevaluation of process and information gathered Can be used beyond middle school to help write scholarly papers AGOPPE Elementary REACTS Middle Students don’t need as much structure now that they understand and appreciate the research process This model prepares students for college and beyond Represents the higher level thinking involved in complex research assignments Metacognition: students are asked to continuously reassess the research question and cycle back through the process Research Cycle High

24 Alignment of the VSC with AGOPPE (Standard 5.0 History)

25 Alignment of AGOPPE with IL Standards Standard 1: Accesses information efficiently and effectively Standard 2: Evaluates information critically and competently Standard 3: Uses information accurately and creatively Standard 6: Information literate and strives for excellence in information seeking and knowledge generation

26 Alignment of the VSC with REACTS (Standard 5.0 History)

27 Alignment of REACTS with IL Standards Standard 1: Accesses information efficiently and effectively Standard 2: Evaluates information critically and competently Standard 3: Uses information accurately and creatively Standard 6: Information literate and strives for excellence in information seeking and knowledge generation

28 Alignment the VSC with the Research Cycle (Standard 5.0 History)

29 Alignment of the Research Cycle with IL Standards Standard 1: Accesses information efficiently and effectively Standard 2: Evaluates information critically and competently Standard 3: Uses information accurately and creatively Standard 6: Information literate and strives for excellence in information seeking and knowledge generation

30 Audience Analysis: AGOPPE Appropriate for all grade levels (elementary through high school) Process eventually becomes intuitive Model can be adapted to meet needs of diverse learners Teachers can guide students more or less according to individual needs Process can lead to different final products depending on student capabilities Rubrics can be created to cater to different student needs and lessons Can expect varying requirements and detail, scope, number of sources, etc.

31 Audience Analysis: REACTS Appropriate to use in high school, college, and beyond Helpful for students that need clear expectations of what is being asked of them Clear, concrete steps help students understand the process that have trouble grasping abstract concepts Depending on the individual need, steps can be modified of taken out entirely of the process For example, the thought of 10 steps could be overwhelming for some, so the first three steps (1. choose a broad topic 2. get an overview of the topic 3. narrow the topic) could be combined to one step of “selecting a topic”

32 Audience Analysis: Research Cycle Appropriate for middle school and beyond Best for students who have a high need for cognition (sorting & synthesizing steps) If the model is too complex, it can be used in a more linear fashion to accommodate for those with lower level thinking skills As the student becomes more skilled, the process becomes more non-linear

33 References American Association of School Librarians & Association for Educational Communications and Technology. (1998). Information Power: Building partnerships for learning. Chicago: American Library Association. CSU School of Library and Information Science. (1997). Brainstorm and blueprints: Teaching library research as a thinking process. Retrieved December 13, 2008 from Eisenberg, M. B, & Berkowitz, R. E. (2008). What is the Big6? Retrieved December 13, 2008 from Florida Department of Education. (2006). Introduction to FINDS; Florida research model. Retrieved December 13, 2008 from Information Age Inquiry. (2006a). 5As. Retrieved December 13, 2008 from Information Age Inquiry. (2006b). 8Ws of information inquiry. Retrieved December 13, 2008 from Information Age Inquiry. (2006c). Noodle tools: Building blocks of research. Retrieved December 13, 2008 from Information Age Inquiry. (2006d). Information search process (ISP). Retrieved December 13, 2008 from Information Age Inquiry. (2006e). I-Search. Retrieved December 13, 2008 from

34 References Information Age Inquiry. (2006f). Pathways to knowledge. Retrieved December 13, 2008 from Information Age Inquiry. (2006g). REACTS. Retrieved December 13, 2008 from Information Age Inquiry. (2006h). Research cycle. Retrieved December 13, 2008 from Information Age Inquiry. (2006i). Big 6 and super 3. Retrieved December 13, 2008 from Johnson, L., & Lamb, A. (2007). Approaches to information and communication literacy. Retrieved December 13, 2008 from Kuhlthau, C. (2008). Carol Collier Kuhlthau. Retrieved December 13, 2008 from Library and Literary Miscellany. (2008). Pathways to knowledge. Retrieved December 13, 2008 from McKenzie, J. (2000). Research cycle Retrieved December 13, 2008 from

35 References Maryland State Department of Education. (2008). Teaching and learning: Social studies. Retrieved December 14, 2008 from Montgomery County Public Schools. (2007). Information literacy: A shared responsibility. The Information Literacy Guide, NoodleTools. (2007). Information Literacy. Retrieved December 13, 2008 from Premiere Speakers Bureau. (2008). Ian Jukes Speech Topics. Retrieved from Space Coast Media Center. (2008). Implementing FINDS [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved December 13, 2008 from


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