Presentation on theme: "Care Plan/Concept Map Workshop Nursing Care Plans/Concept Maps Utilize the Nursing Process to construct an individualized plan of care for a patient."— Presentation transcript:
Care Plan/Concept Map Workshop
Nursing Care Plans/Concept Maps Utilize the Nursing Process to construct an individualized plan of care for a patient based on a critical analysis of patient assessment data Nursing Process: Systematic method of giving humanistic care that focuses on achieving outcomes in a cost effective manner.
Nursing Care Plans Written guidelines for client care Organized so nurse can quickly identify nursing actions to be delivered Coordinates resources for care Enhances the continuity of care Organizes information for change of shift report
The Nursing Process is a Systematic Five Step Process Assessment Diagnosis Planning Implementation Evaluation
Why Use the Nursing Process for Care Plans Requirement set forth by national practice standards (ANA, TJC) Basis for NCLEX exams Based on principles and rules that promote critical thinking in nursing
Putting it All Together Assessment: The first step in determining a patients’s health status. Gather information, put pieces of the health puzzle together. Entire plan is based on the data you collect, data needs to be complete and accurate Collect, verify, and organize data, identify patterns, report and record the data. Report significant abnormalities immediately.
Case Scenario Mr. Jones complains his throat and mouth are dry. He is allowed fluids, but has had almost nothing to drink all evening. He tells you he would like to drink, but doesn’t like water, especially the warm water in the pitcher. He also hates to bother the nurse. The nurse notes his oral mucosa is dry and cracked and his urine output for the last shift is low.
Assessment First step in determining health status Gather information Gather all the “puzzle pieces” to put together a clear picture of health status Entire plan is based on data collected Data needs to be complete and accurate, make sense of patterns
5 Activities Needed to Perform a Systematic Assessment Collect data Verify data Organize data Identify Patterns Report & Record data
Comprehensive Data Collection Begins before you actually see the patient (Nurse report from ER, Chart reviews) Continues with admission interview and physical assessment once you meet patient. Other information resources include: family, significant others, nursing records, old medical records, diagnostic studies, relevant nursing literature. Consider age, growth & development
What’s Important Data? Name, age, gender, admitting diagnosis Medical/surgical history, chronic illnesses Advanced Directives Laboratory Data/Diagnostic tests Medications Allergies Support Services Psychosocial/Cultural Assessment Emotional state Comprehensive Physical Assessment
Vital signs Height & weight Review of systems (neurological/mental status, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory, GI, GU, skin and wounds. Standardized risk assessments: Pressure ulcers, falls, DVT
Organizing Assessment Data Cluster data into groups according to a nursing or medical model (Maslow’s Basic Human Needs Model) Clustering data helps maintain a nursing focus, allows patterns to be recognized Cluster by body system or need deficit Helps to identify nursing diagnosis pertinent to your client Example: All information gathered regarding nutritional status may help to identify nutritional alterations
Diagnosis Assessment Critical analysis of data Diagnosis or Problem Identification Laws & standards continue to change to reflect how nursing practice is growing (APN role) Novice nurse responsible for recognizing health problems, anticipating complications, initiating actions to ensure appropriate and timely treatment.
Identifying Nursing Diagnosis Common language for nurses A clinical judgment about an individual, family or community response to an actual or potential health problem or life process, Nursing diagnosis provide a basis for selection of nursing interventions so that goals and outcomes can be achieved NANDA list of acceptable diagnoses, updated every 2 years.
Diagnostic Reasoning Apply critical thinking to problem identification Requires knowledge, skill, and experience Big Picture
Fundamental Principles of Diagnostic Reasoning Recognize diagnoses Keep an open mind Back up diagnosis with evidence Intuition is a valuable tool for problem identification Independent thinker Know your qualifications & limitations
Nursing Diagnosis Actual or Potential problems identified Actual: actual evidence of signs/symptoms of diagnosis exist. (Fluid Volume Deficit) Potential/Risk for Diagnosis: client’s data base contains risk factors of diagnosis, but no true evidence (Risk for altered skin integrity)
Writing a Nursing Diagnosis Actual Problems: Problem (NANDA label) & Etiology & Supporting Signs and Symptoms Impaired Communication related to language barrier as evidenced by inability to speak English
Writing a Nursing Diagnosis Potential or Risk Problems: Problem (NANDA label) & etiology or problem & risk factors with related to statement linking problem to risk factors. Risk for Impaired skin integrity related to obesity, excessive diaphoresis, and immobility.
Writing A Nursing Diagnosis Use accepted qualifying terms (Altered, Decreased, Increased, Impaired) Don’t use Medical Diagnosis (Altered Nutritional Status related to Cancer) Don’t state 2 separate problems in one diagnosis Refer to NANDA list in a nursing text books
Planning: 4 Part Process Set your priorities of care, what needs to be done first, what can wait. Apply Nursing Standards, Nurse Practice Act, National practice guidelines, hospital policy and procedure manuals. Identify your goals & outcomes, derive them from nursing diagnosis/problem. Determine interventions, based on goals. Record the plan (care plan/concept map)
Planning Risk for Impaired skin integrity related to immobility Now restate the first clause in a statement that describes improvement, control or absence of problem The patient will have no signs of skin breakdown during hospital stay. Outcome needs to be time related. ( state time period to achieve goal)
Short Term vs. Long Term Goals Short term goal can be achieved in a reasonable amount of time ( few hours to few days) Long term goals may take weeks/months to be achieved Client will ambulate down the hall within 2 days. Client will walk the length of the hallway independently by the end of 2 weeks
Achieving Goals/Outcomes Be realistic in setting goals. (look at overall health state, growth & development level, prognosis) Set goals mutually with client Goals should be measurable, use measurable, observable verbs Identify one behavior per outcome When indicated use short-term vs. long tern goals
Determining Interventions Nursing interventions are actions performed by nurse to reach goal or outcome Monitor health status Minimize client risks Direct Care Intervention: Direct action performed to client (inserting foley catheter) Indirect Care Intervention: actions performed away from client ( looking at lab results)
Determining Interventions Interventions will be collaborative, combining nursing actions and physician orders. Ineffective Airway Clearance related to incisional pain Nursing Actions: Ascultate breath sounds every four hours, Assist with coughing and deep breathing every hour etc. Physician orders: pain medication, activity orders
Implementation Putting your plan into action Set priorities after report Assess and reassess Perform interventions Chart client responses Give report to next shift
Implementation of Nursing Interventions Describes a category of nursing behaviors in which the actions necessary for achieving the goals and outcomes are initiated and completed Action taken by nurse
Types of Nursing Interventions Protocols: Written plan specifying the procedures to be followed during care of a client with a select clinical condition or situation Standing Orders: Document containing orders for the conduct of routine therapies, monitoring guidelines, and/or diagnostic procedure for specific condition
Implementation Process involves: Reassessing the client Reviewing and revising the existing care plan Organizing resources and care delivery (equipment, personnel, environment)
Evaluation Evaluation of individual plan of care includes determining outcome achievement Identify variables/factors affecting outcome achievement Decide where to continue/modify/terminate plan Continue/modify/terminate plan based on whether outcome has been met (partially or completely) Ongoing assessment of QI
Evaluation Step of the nursing process that measures the client’s response to nursing actions and the client’s progress toward achieving goals Data collected on an on-going basis Supports the basis of the usefulness and effectiveness of nursing practice Involves measurement of Quality of Care
Evaluation of Goal Achievement Measures and Sources: Assessment skills and techniques As goals are evaluated, adjustments of the care plan are made If the goal was met, that part of the care plan is discontinued Redefines priorities
Concept Map Care Plans Innovative approach to planning & organizing nursing care. Essentially a diagram of patient problems and interventions Ideas about patient problems and interventions are the “concepts” to be diagrammed. Enhances critical thinking and clinical reasoning Used to organize patient data, analyze relationships, establish priorities
Theoretical Basis of Concept Maps Roots in education and psychology Also known as mind maps, cognitive maps Concept mapping requires critical thinking New knowledge is built on preexisting knowledge, new concepts are integrated by identifying relationships
Steps in Concept Map Care Planning Develop a Basic Skeleton Diagram Analyze and Catagorize Data Analyze Nursing Diagnoses Relationships Identifying Goals, Outcomes, & Interventions Evaluate patient responses