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Tier 1 Screening and Intervention Preceding and During Response to Intervention (RTI) Washington State screens for PKU, deafness etc. at birth and has.

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Presentation on theme: "Tier 1 Screening and Intervention Preceding and During Response to Intervention (RTI) Washington State screens for PKU, deafness etc. at birth and has."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tier 1 Screening and Intervention Preceding and During Response to Intervention (RTI) Washington State screens for PKU, deafness etc. at birth and has drastically reduced the severity of the cognitive and language problems associated with these disorders through early intervention. Schools could screen for target skills that put children at-risk for reading and writing at specific developmental (grade) levels, provide early intervention tailored to these (not core curriculum with everyone on same page), and drastically reduce severity of these treatable disorders and special ed $$$ required.

2 Alternative 3-Tier Assessment-Intervention Model Can everyone win the Olympics? Do human abilities distribute along a normal distribution curve? Do reading and writing, and reading-related and writing-related skills distribute along a normal distribution curve?

3 Alternative 3-Tier Assessment-Intervention Model (Berninger et al., 2001; Berninger, 2007-c) Prevention, based on normal variation, rather than Core Curriculum Problem Solving Consultation rather than Supplementary Instruction Not Individually Tailored Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Planning rather than Eligibility for Special Education

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5 Adding Writing to Early Reading Instruction May Transform Education: Fewer Costly Special Education Services Required and Achievement Gap Narrowed

6 Evidence from UW Research Intra-individual differences exist within translation at the word, sentence, and text levels. Teaching to all levels of language (including subword close in time overcomes working memory inefficiencies). Walk before we run (accuracy before fluency, strategies before automaticity and fluency).

7 End Organs for Language and Working Memory Architecture Language System has four end organs for connecting with the external world: ears and eyes (for receiving multisensory information) and mouth and hands (for sending information) (Liberman, 1999). Thus, struggling readers and writers need multisensori-motor instruction not just multisensory instruction.

8 End Organs for Language and Working Memory Architecture Phonological Loop (eye to mouth used in oral reading) but ear gives feedback. Orthographic Loop (spelling in mind’s eye used in writing) but eye gives feedback. So instruction that combines phonological loop training and orthographic loop training engages all the end organs of language!! No wonder combined loop training normalized temporal functional connectivity of brain in children with dyslexia while performing phoneme-grapheme mapping task!! (Richards & Berninger, 2008)

9 Are developing writers bilingual by hand –able to express ideas by pen and by keyboard? Yes, but don’t throw away your pencils!

10 All Rodin images from Wikipedia Free Encyclopeida Wikimedia Commons The Thinker Auguste Rodin,Auguste Rodin 1902 Bronze andBronze Marble Paris,Paris Musée Rodin

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12 Tier 1 Steps for Reading and Writing in Kindergarten Step 1: Assess all students in general education for accuracy of letter naming and letter writing and phonological awareness). Step 2: Provide evidence-based early intervention in regular classroom. Step 3: Reassess accuracy of letter naming and writing and phonological awareness in response to intervention (RTI). Step 4: Refer those who do not respond to phonological awareness or letter naming/writing instruction to school psychologist, special educator, or speech and/or speech language specialist for problem solving consultation combining assessment and modification of instruction.

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14 Tier 1 Steps for Reading and Writing in 1 st Grade Step 1: Assess all students in general education for reading real word and pseudoword accuracy, handwriting, and spelling. Step 2: Provide evidence-based early intervention in regular classroom. Step 3: Reassess accuracy of each Step 1 skill in response to intervention (RTI). Step 4: Refer non-responders to Tier 1 multi-level instruction to school psychologist, special educator, and/or speech and language specialist for problem solving consultation (targeted assessment and modification of instruction).

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16 Evidence-Based Distinction Automaticity (Automatic Single Process)  Retrieval of Word Pronunciation  Application of Decoding Procedures for Single Word Fluency (Coordination of Multiple Items)  Effortless  Coordinated, and  Consequently, Fast.

17 Tier 1 Steps for Reading and Writing in 2 nd Grade Step 1: Assess all students in general education for automaticity of real word reading and reading pseudowords, and spelling accuracy. Step 2: Provide early intervention in regular classroom. Step 3: Reassess automaticity of real word and pseudoword reading and spelling accuracy in response to intervention (RTI). Step 4: Refer those who do not respond to decoding, word reading, comprehension, spelling, and composing instruction to school psychologist, special educator, and/or speech and language specialist for problem solving consultation combining assessment and modification of instruction.

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19 Tier 1 Steps for Reading and Writing in 3rd Grade Step 1: Assess all students in general education for accuracy and rate of oral reading of graded passages, and writing fluency. Step 2: Provide early intervention in regular classroom. Step 3: Reassess oral reading fluency and writing fluency in response to intervention (RTI). Step 4: Refer those who do not respond to multi-level oral reading and/or writing fluency instruction to school psychologist, special educator, and/or speech and language specialist for problem solving consultation combining assessment and modification

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22 Tier 3 Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Planning  Some reading and writing problems respond to early intervention, but because of specific genetic variants (alleles), which result in brain differences, are vulnerable and appear again when the curriculum requirements change and become more complex as affected students progress through the grades.  Differential diagnosis has treatment implications that are grade-related. Developmental Stepping Stones as well as Individual Differences.

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24 For dyslexia, focus on 3 word forms, phonological loop, and executive functions. PAL II Working Memory Assessment-Instruction Model

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28 Training through UW Extension Workshop 1a: Prevention of Reading, Writing, and Math problems in Kindergarten through Fourth Grade June 20, 2009 Participants will learn evidence-based universal screens, lesson plans for identified at-risk students, and progress monitoring for response to intervention (RTI) in three academic domains. This workshop is designed for school administrators, school psychologists, speech and language specialists, and teachers. Follow-up Workshop 1b: November 7, 2009 Professionals who participated in Workshop 1a who have implemented what they learned are invited to return for consultation on the implementation process and evaluation of the cost savings for the school district and benefits for the students.

29 Training through UW Extension Workshop 2a: Tier 2 problem-solving consultation for students who struggle in reading, writing, or math. June, Participants will learn how to use teacher and parent questionnaires, teacher interviews, student observation, and brief, evidence-based assessments to identify problems as they arise throughout the elementary grades, plan modification of the instructional program, and conduct progress monitoring for response to intervention (RTI). This workshop is designed for school psychologists and speech and language specialists. Follow-up Workshop 2b: November 14, 2009 Professionals who participated in Workshop 2a who have implemented what they learned are invited to return for consultation on the implementation of the problem- solving consultation process and evaluation of the cost savings for the school district and benefits for the students.

30 Training through UW Extension Workshop 3a: Tier 3 diagnosis and treatment of specific learning disabilities (dysgraphia, dyslexia, and oral and written language learning disability OWL LD) June 27, 2009 Participants will learn how to diagnose dysgraphia, dyslexia, oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD), and dyscalculia and plan and implement differentiated instruction in general education or special education, and evaluate response to instruction (RTI). This workshop is designed for school administrators, school psychologists, speech and language specialists, and teachers. Follow-up Workshop 3b: November 21, 2009 Professionals who participated in Workshop 3a who have implemented what they learned are invited to return for consultation on differential diagnosis and treatment planning for specific learning disabilities. They will also learn how to do program evaluation of the cost savings for the school district and benefits for the students.

31 Culturally Sensitive Practices Visit this website for Seeds of Compassion:

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33 Ground-Up Transformational Change Change comes from bottom-up in our local schools and not just from top-down from federal government (and in Native American culture low person in totem is the most important in touch with the ground). Can we change the system from bottom up to prevent reading and writing problems? Yes we can !

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35 MovieMarcelMarceau for website.wmv


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