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Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy Program: Considering the Needs of Students With or At-Risk for Reading Disabilities Paige C. Pullen, Ph.D. University.

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Presentation on theme: "Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy Program: Considering the Needs of Students With or At-Risk for Reading Disabilities Paige C. Pullen, Ph.D. University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy Program: Considering the Needs of Students With or At-Risk for Reading Disabilities Paige C. Pullen, Ph.D. University of Virginia November 19, 2010 U.S. Department of Education

2 What are the multiple influences on reading comprehension?

3 Reading Comprehension Early Language Experiences Background Knowledge Activation of Background Knowledge Vocabulary Depth of Word Knowledge Breadth of Word Knowledge Decoding Fluency Phonemic Awareness Knowledge of Text Structures

4 Are there other influences on reading comprehension? Are some specific to students with disabilities?

5 Reading Comprehension Working Memory Capacity Interest Motivation Metacognitive Abilities (regulation and repair) Rapid Naming

6 Remediation-Intervention-Prevention Remediation refers to the process of correcting a deficiency. Intervention refers to the process of coming into or between so as to hinder or alter an action (i.e., stop failure). Prevention is the process of keeping something from happening. (Cooper, Chard, Kiger, 2006)

7 Framework for Prevention and Intervention Assess and Diagnose Teach/Reteach Reassess ApplyPractice

8 Framework for Prevention and Intervention Assess and Diagnose Teach/Reteach Reassess ApplyPractice What are the student’s strengths and weaknesses? Gather data –Standardized tests –Informal measures –Teacher observations

9 Framework for Prevention and Intervention Assess and Diagnose Teach/Reteach Reassess ApplyPractice Provide direct, explicit instruction in the strategy, skill, or process the student needs based on your assessment and diagnosis. Model the skill and provide direct explanation. This step is the “Let me show you how to do it” step.

10 Framework for Prevention and Intervention Assess and Diagnose Teach/Reteach Reassess ApplyPractice Provide multiple opportunities to use what has been taught. Begin with practice that provides significant teacher support. “Let me help you.” Move to more independent practice. “Now you do it.”

11 Framework for Prevention and Intervention Assess and Diagnose Teach/Reteach Reassess ApplyPractice Student applies the skill learned in real reading. Continue gathering observational data about the child’s use of the strategy during reading. Remember…the goal is to have the student use the strategy independently in his or her own reading.

12 Framework for Prevention and Intervention Assess and Diagnose Teach/Reteach Reassess ApplyPractice Has the student learned what you have provided through direct, explicit instruction? –Assess during teaching and practice opportunities. –Assess following teaching and practice opportunities. Use data to make a decision. –Reteach the skill if it was not mastered. –Teach a new skill/strategy that is appropriate to the systematized instructional sequence.

13 Consider the Multiple Influences on Reading Comprehension How do the multiple influences on reading comprehension translate into what to assess and diagnose?

14 What do I assess, diagnose, teach? Oral Language Print Awareness Phonemic Awareness Vocabulary Reading Fluency Reading Comprehension Word Recognition

15 Reading Skills of a Skilled Reader

16 Reading skills of an Impaired Reader

17 Where do I begin my intervention? Assess and diagnose using the guidelines presented. Select the skill lowest in the hierarchy of reading development. Move systematically through the hierarchy of reading skills. Keep in mind that students are building many skills simultaneously.

18 Beginning the Diagnosis and Intervention Process To do so, teachers must: understand the reading process; know how to assess each key area of reading; understand the framework for prevention and intervention; and possess the knowledge and skills to implement multiple strategies for intervention and prevention.

19 How can districts and states support children at risk for or with disabilities? Consider the story of Eve--

20 How can districts and states support children at risk for or with disabilities? Consider the story of Eve-- –Struggled with literacy development from kindergarten –In first grade, Eve was provided two days of intensive support from August to January (Tier 2?) –She was provided two additional days of intensive support from January to May (Tier 3?) –Attended summer school, private tutoring. Still struggling. –At the beginning of second grade, Eve received 2 days of additional reading support (back to Tier 2?) –School district denied the parents a full evaluation for a learning disability, quoting, “Special education is a detriment to children.” And, “There’s no such thing as special education for students with learning disabilities anymore.”

21 How can districts and states support children at risk for or with disabilities? Provide early and intensive support for children at risk for reading disabilities. Implement excellent Tier 1 instruction to all children through a comprehensive literacy program. Identify children who need additional support. Provide evidence-based instruction through increasingly intensive instruction (i.,e., RTI). Provide full evaluations for students who have expected disabilities. Continue excellent evidence-based instruction for children identified with disabilities and follow an individualized education program (IEP). Advocate for children and youth with disabilities to ensure that we continue to consider their rights to a free and appropriate public education with supports and accommodations as needed.

22 Thank you for considering the rights of Eve and the many children who struggle with learning disabilities. TEACH WELL!


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