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Carbohydrates Fuel and Fibre. What is a Carbohydrate?

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Presentation on theme: "Carbohydrates Fuel and Fibre. What is a Carbohydrate?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbohydrates Fuel and Fibre

2 What is a Carbohydrate?

3 Carbohydrates are made up of 3 elements:

4 What is a Carbohydrate? Carbohydrates are made up of 3 elements: –carbon

5 What is a Carbohydrate? Carbohydrates are made up of 3 elements: –carbon –hydrogen

6 What is a Carbohydrate? Carbohydrates are made up of 3 elements: –carbon –hydrogen –oxygen with a hydrogen / oxygen ratio of 2 / 1, the same as in water

7 What is a Carbohydrate? Carbo stands for Carbon Hydrate means Water When a carbohydrate is heated, it breaks down into water (as steam) and carbon (black solid)

8 What is a Carbohydrate? Carbo stands for Carbon Hydrate means Water C 12 H 22 O 11 12C + 11 H 2 O

9 Classes of Carbohydrate

10 Monosaccharides

11 Classes of Carbohydrate Monosaccharides –glucose

12 Classes of Carbohydrate Monosaccharides –glucose –fructose glucosefructose

13 Classes of Carbohydrate Monosaccharides –glucose –fructose –galactose glucosefructose galactose

14 Classes of Carbohydrate Monosaccharides –glucose –fructose –galactose Disaccharides

15 Classes of Carbohydrate Monosaccharides –glucose –fructose –galactose Disaccharides –sucrose

16 Classes of Carbohydrate Monosaccharides –glucose –fructose –galactose Disaccharides –sucrose –lactose

17 Classes of Carbohydrate Monosaccharides –glucose –fructose –galactose Disaccharides –sucrose –lactose –maltose

18 Classes of Carbohydrate Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides

19 Classes of Carbohydrate Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides –starch

20 Classes of Carbohydrate Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides –starch –glycogen

21 Classes of Carbohydrate Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides –starch –glycogen –fibre (cellulose)

22 Classes of Carbohydrate Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides –starch - store sugars in plant seeds and roots –glycogen –fibre

23 Classes of Carbohydrate Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides –starch - store sugars in plant seeds and roots –glycogen - stores glucose in muscle and liver –fibre

24 Classes of Carbohydrate Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides –starch - stores sugars in plant seeds and roots –glycogen - stores glucose in muscle and liver –fibre - from cell walls of plants, indigestible

25 Functions of Carbohydrate

26 Source of Energy

27 Functions of Carbohydrate Source of Energy –Sugars: Quick Energy, Quick Drop

28 Functions of Carbohydrate Source of Energy –Sugars: Quick Energy, Quick Drop low sugar level (hypogycemia) may follow

29 Functions of Carbohydrate Source of Energy –Sugars: Quick Energy, Quick Drop low sugar level (hypogycemia) may follow excess sugar stored as body fat

30 Functions of Carbohydrate Source of Energy –Sugars: Quick Energy, Quick Drop low sugar level (hypogycemia) may follow excess sugar stored as body fat fructose, in particular, stored as body fat

31 Functions of Carbohydrate Source of Energy –Sugars: Quick Energy, Quick Drop low sugar level (hypogycemia) may follow excess sugar stored as body fat fructose, in particular, stored as body fat –Complex Carbohydrates

32 Functions of Carbohydrate Source of Energy –Sugars: Quick Energy, Quick Drop low sugar level (hypogycemia) may follow excess sugar stored as body fat fructose, in particular, stored as body fat –Complex Carbohydrates (whole grain products)

33 Functions of Carbohydrate Source of Energy –Sugars: Quick Energy, Quick Drop low sugar level (hypogycemia) may follow excess sugar stored as body fat fructose, in particular, stored as body fat –Complex Carbohydrates (whole grain products) starch digested slowly, step by step

34 Functions of Carbohydrate Source of Energy –Sugars: Quick Energy, Quick Drop low sugar level (hypogycemia) may follow excess sugar stored as body fat fructose, in particular, stored as body fat –Complex Carbohydrates (whole grain products) starch digested slowly, step by step released slowly into bloodstream

35 Functions of Carbohydrate Source of Energy –Sugars: Quick Energy, Quick Drop low sugar level (hypogycemia) may follow excess sugar stored as body fat fructose, in particular, stored as body fat –Complex Carbohydrates (whole grain products) starch digested slowly, step by step released slowly into bloodstream blood sugar level more steady

36 Hormones and Carbohydrates

37 Insulin, produced in Pancreas

38 Hormones and Carbohydrates Insulin, produced in Pancreas –enables body cells to use glucose from blood

39 Hormones and Carbohydrates Insulin, produced in Pancreas –enables body cells to use glucose from blood –causes excess glucose to be stored as glycogen

40 Hormones and Carbohydrates Insulin, produced in Pancreas –enables body cells to use glucose from blood –causes excess glucose to be stored as glycogen –Type 1 Diabetes caused by insufficient insulin

41 Hormones and Carbohydrates Insulin, produced in Pancreas –enables body cells to use glucose from blood –causes excess glucose to be stored as glycogen –Type 1 Diabetes caused by insufficient insulin –Type 2 Diabetes caused by ‘insulin resistance’

42 The End…


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