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Life processes of microbes The structure of bacteria Bacterial life – reproduction Bacterial life - feeding Toxins C Bacteria.

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Presentation on theme: "Life processes of microbes The structure of bacteria Bacterial life – reproduction Bacterial life - feeding Toxins C Bacteria."— Presentation transcript:

1 Life processes of microbes The structure of bacteria Bacterial life – reproduction Bacterial life - feeding Toxins C Bacteria

2 Although microbes are very different from the plants and animals you are familiar with, most still have the characteristics of living things: ovement espiration ensitivity rowth eproduction xcretion utrition Life processes of microbes M R S G R E N

3 By understanding how different microbes carry out their life processes, and the conditions that suit them best, we can encourage the growth of desirable microbes or prevent the growth of undesirable ones. Life processes Living microbes carry out the life processes of all living things: Movement, Respiration, Sensitivity, Growth, Reproduction, Excretion and Nutrition.

4 The structure of bacteria nuclear region contains the genetic code flagella allow the cell to move cell membrane controls the movement of substances into or out of the cell cell wall gives shape and protects the membrane gelatinous sheath protects from viruses cytoplasm where life functions are carried out Click on the name to see which part is which. Reveal all

5 The structure of bacteria Hide all nuclear region contains the genetic code flagella allow the cell to move cell membrane controls the movement of substances into or out of the cell cell wall gives shape and protects the membrane gelatinous sheath protects from viruses cytoplasm where life functions are carried out

6 The structure of bacteria Controls entry and exit of dissolved substances. Sticky layer that protects cell from viruses. Where the chromosomes are located. Provides shape and protection. Where life functions take place. Allow the particle to move. cell wall nuclear region flagella cytoplasm cell membrane gelatinous sheath Label the diagram and complete the table. 6C 1 The structure of bacteria cell membrane cytoplasm flagella nuclear region cell wall gelatinous sheath

7 Bacterial life Reproduction Bacteria reproduce by binary fission. First the cell gets longer and the chromosome is copied. One chromosome goes to each end, then the cell wall and membrane begin to pinch in. Finally two identical daughter cells separate.

8 Under ideal conditions some bacteria can double their number in only 20 minutes. When the food supply or space runs out, or toxins (poisons produced by the bacteria) build up, bacterial numbers will first start to level off, and then to decrease.

9 Feeding Bacteria feed by extra-cellular digestion. Digestion is the process of breaking down large food molecules (such as starch) into tiny molecules (such as glucose) that can pass through the cell membrane. Extra-cellular means outside the cell. First the bacterium secretes enzymes into the food. e.g. ‘Ex-it’ = go out

10 These enzymes break down the food into tiny molecules. Finally the digested food is able to pass through the cell membrane and into the bacterium itself.

11 Bacterial life Bacteria reproduce by binary fission. First the cell gets larger and the chromosome is copied, then two chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and the walls pinch in, until two identical cells are formed. Bacteria feed by extra-cellular digestion. First enzymes are secreted into the food, then the large food molecules are broken down, and finally small food molecules are absorbed into the cell.

12 Toxins A toxin is something poisonous. Most pathogenic bacteria produce toxins, and it is the toxin that causes the illness, rather than the bacteria itself. Many bacteria secrete toxins into their surrounding environment, similar to the way they secrete enzymes to digest food. In other bacteria, the toxin is contained in the cell wall and released when the bacteria is destroyed by the host’s immune system. The toxin produced by the cholera bacteria causes diarrhoea, the tetanus toxin prevents muscles from relaxing, while the botulism toxin (from which botox is made) causes paralysis.

13 Because it is the toxins produced by bacteria that make us sick, it is possible to become ill from food containing those toxins, even after all the bacteria that produced those toxins have been killed by thorough cooking. Toxins Most pathogenic bacteria make us sick because of the toxins (poisons) they produce. These toxins may cause illness even after all the bacteria which produced them have been killed.

14 Proceed to next chapter End of chapter


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