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©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta BUSINESS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROCESS Architecture THE AUTOMATING AGILITY Change Management Human Resources
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Course No.: ENTR/MAP 459/559 Instructors: Dr. Amar Gupta, Tel: , Amit Mitra, Tel: Text Book Agile systems with reusable patterns of business knowledge – a Component Based Approach by Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta Order at : 1/ref=pd_bbs_b_2_1/ ?v=glance&s=books ADDITIONAL MATERIALS AND NOTES ARE AVAILABLE ON THE WEB Instructions on accessing the materials are in the book
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta 1.BOOK FROM ARTECH HOUSE: / /qid= /sr=2-1/ref=pd_bbs_b_2_1/ ?v=glance&s=books OR AND FOLLOW THE LINK FROM THIS PICTURE OF THE BOOK 2.UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA WEBSITE DESCRIBED IN THE BOOK 3.BOOK FROM CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY BEING RELEASED IN AUGUST 2006: , ISBN: CALL ME: Tel:
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta THE PROBLEM IN A GLOBAL INFORMATION ECONOMY, BUSINESS THRIVES ON CHANGE –INTENSE COMPETITION, GLOBAL SUPPLY CHAINS –INCREASING REGULATION –NEW OPPORTUNITIES, THREATS –EXPLODING KNOWLEDGE BASE, RAPID INNOVATION SYSTEMS –OBSTACLE TO CHANGE –MULTIPLICITY OF IMPACT –COST LOST TIME = MISSED OPPORTUNITY
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESS LOW COST PROVIDER PRODUCT- SERVICE INNOVATION LOW COST AND CUSTOMER SERVICE WILL NOT SUFFICE!
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta DESIRED IMPACT Strategy Information Technology People and Processes Strategic Develop and control a strategy to deliver customer and shareholder value Performance Improvement Make the business more effective in meeting the demands of its customers: innovative products, lower cost, better quality and reduced time Enabling Technologies Ensure that the most appropriate technologies are applied to the business systems to allow them to support the creation of customer and shareholder value Become the ‘Implementor of Business Transformation’ through focused entry points with innovation and thought leadership Consulting Services I/T Software Products
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Cheap Labor? Leverage Knowledge? Hire talented people? OBJECTIVES Be the ‘Implementer of Business Transformation’ through focused entry points Achieve high quality of I/T products & Services at low cost Lead Change and innovation HOW? Process?
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta IT EVOLUTION Machine Code Hardware Assembler Code 3GL Functional Decomposition Data Models Objects Components BPM Meanings are abstract patterns of information (What is the meaning of Pattern?) Can we “normalize” meanings, configuring each from others? SOA
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Build business components to facilitate Speed Power Deliver World Class Business Systems Components to customers’ in support of their need for speed, agility and power, in a dynamic business environment, constantly pressured by change and innovation Agility Agile business processes Speedy business processes Power in the marketplace Compress Systems Development Timelines Use fewer resources
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta AUTOMATED SYNTHESIS OF BUSINESS KNOWLEDGE FROM REUSABLE COMPONENTS ORGANISATIONS AROUND THE WORLD SPEND BILLIONS REDESIGNING SYSTEMS –To address evolving customer expectations –Support business innovation –Leverage new technology –Support changes in the business environment THE SOLUTION: reuse business knowledge, to realize enormous cost, effort, time to market savings
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta MAIN THEME It is necessary and possible to integrate knowledge, process & systems to do this The time has come to standardize reusable business knowledge components and automate the synthesis of resilient business processes and agile information systems MY BACKGROUND Practitioner –R&D in Process Improvement, IT Strategy and Enterprise Architecture Chief Methodologist – AIG Director of Architecture – NYNEX Manager Information Systems Planning, NYNEX subsidiary Manager, Architecture and e-commerce KPMG Black Belt – Six Sigma
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Schedule Mondays and Wednesdays –9 AM to 12 Noon Spring Break –No classes March 13 and 15 –Classes resume March 20th –Today’s Agenda (3/6): 1: Introduction and quick overview of what you will learn 2: First Principles –The characteristics of information and the business problem we will address –Our scope, intent and approach –What is a model? –The role of factual information within the architecture of knowledge –Basic components of our model; Metamodels and the story of Metanesia
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta ORGANIZATION OF TODAY’S LESSON 1.CONCEPT AND SCOPE 2.INTRODUCTION TO THE SEMANTICS OF KNOWLEDGE (METAMODEL ) 3.INTRODUCTION TO REUSABLE COMPONENTS OF BUSINESS KNOWLEDGE 4.EXAMPLES OF AUTOMATED KNOWLEDGE REUSE 5.BENEFITS
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta CONCEPT AND SCOPE
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta THE PROBLEM - ADAPTABILITY BUSINESS THRIVES ON CHANGE –I–INTENSE COMPETITION, GLOBAL SUPPLY CHAINS –I–INCREASING REGULATION –N–NEW OPPORTUNITIES, THREATS –E–EXPLODING KNOWLEDGE BASE, RAPID INNOVATION SYSTEMS, HOWEVER… –A–ARE AN OBSTACLE TO CHANGE –M–MULTIPLICITY OF IMPACT –C–COST LOST TIME = MISSED OPPORTUNITY THE SOLUTION IS.. –T–TO ADAPT TO MOVING TARGETS… –B–BY OPERATING ON THE PLANE OF MEANING TO… –S–SEAMLESSLY INTEGRATE AND AUTOMATE ALIGNMENT BETWEEN BUSINESS KNOWLEDGE, BUSINESS PROCESS AND INFORMATION SYSTEM. By recognizing that each is an EXPRESSION of the other, and may be derived from the other. Knowledge is malleable Its use fosters new learning & innovation The industrial manufacturing paradigms have limited validity in the global knowledge economy This happens becauseTherefore
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Business Space Solution Space System Requirements Design Generation Business Domain Specification CASE tools and Information Systems delivery start here. What How Shared Patterns of Business & real World Knowledge Reusable patterns of business knowledge, business semantics, operations, tactics, strategy CAPE tools and Value Chains start here. Reusable Requirements “Consider that an enterprise is a thinking entity…many of these thoughts exist as business rules” - Barbara von Halle Our book starts here...
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Executive Management Functional Management Department Management System Architect’s View IT Strategist’s View Chief Developer’s View Market and Industry Responsi -veness Product and Service Level Adaptability Product & Service Level Functional Suitability User Level Adaptability User Level Functional Suitability Delivery Consistency DECREASING IMPACT ON BUSINESS MOST BUSINESS VALUE ADD Business Unit & Operations Management Programmer’s View Intra- organizational Coordination, Communication and Alignment Key business values derived from business process engineering LEAST BUSINESS VALUE ADD
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta TRADITIONAL STANDARDS HAVE HAD LIMITED BUSINESS RELEVANCE System Architect’s View Strategic View Chief Developer’s View DECREASING IMPACT ON BUSINESS VALUES- ADDED Component technology has focussed on technology knowledge, not high value business knowledge Programmer’s View Miss -ion Vis- ion Go -als Service Levels Strat- egies Process Data Applic -ation BUSINESS KNOWLEDGE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY KNOWLEDGE COMPONENT ENGINEERING HISTORICAL FOCUS COMPONENT ENGINEERING REQUIRED FOCUS Presen -tation Session Net- work Data Trans- port Data Link Physical Components
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta The Architecture of Knowledge TECHNOLOGY RULES INTERFACE RULES (HUMAN & AUTOMATION) INFORMATION LOGISTICS BUSINESS RULES Vision Process Events Value Policy/Strategy Exceptions Business Rules Business Opportunity or Environmental Change Encapsulate and normalize common patterns of Business Knowledge Objective BUSINESS PROCESS AUTO- MATION BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM OPERATION
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta TECHNOLOGY RULES INTERFACE RULES (HUMAN & AUTOMATION) INFORMATION LOGISTICS BUSINESS RULES Vision Process Events Value Policy/Strategy Exceptions BUSINESSPATTERNS DATA MOVEMENT GUIs & FORMATTING COMPONENTS Maintenance PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION COMPONENTS Components Performance optimized components for select platforms ACTIVE PRODUCTION COMPONENTS ACTIVE PROTOTYPING COMPONENTS Components Business Opportunity or Environmental Change BUSINESS PROCESS AUTO- MATION BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM OPERATION The Architecture of Knowledge
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Key Concepts & Assumptions Meanings are patterns of abstract information –May be configured from other meanings –Meanings are components, configured from components –May have one or more expressions Can automation manipulate meanings; operate on the plane of meaning? Can innovation be automated? KNOWLEDGE ARTIFACT Normalized, reusable business knowledge component or subassembly Business Knowledge is configured from meanings –If automation can manipulate meanings rather than blind code, business processes and information systems can become extremely flexible and agile Instance of
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta The rule of inventory management If we attempted to find every rule and business meaning in even a small business, there would be only one outcome – Analysis Paralysis There are too many rules to inventory and common patterns are often lost in this tangled web –Luckily, a few universal components connect the business of the enterprise –And are therefore the critical rules, reused most often –How can we find them?
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta However.. Competitive advantage does NOT flow from standardization It flows from differentiation …and Standardization and differentiation are not in conflict. They complement each other..,
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Standardization and differentiation are mutually complementary (Easier to conceive) (Abstract and hard to conceive) RISK
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Tangible Objects, Processes & Mechanisms Tangible Information Information Logistics, Interface & Technology Layers Abstract Meanings & Patterns that unify INFORMATION SPACE (A CONNECTING HUB) REAL WORLD INFORMATION SYSTEM Crossing the Chasm from reality to information system
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta METAMODEL OF BUSINESS KNOWLEDGE PEOPLE & BEST PRACTICES PATTERNS OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION/PEOPLE PROCESS & WORKFLOW PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE TOOLS INCLUDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS STRATEGY PRODUCT & SERVICE OFFERINGS POLICIES, LEGISLATION, REGULATION OUR APPROACH TO ABSTRACTION & KNOWLEDGE REUSE : THREE PILLARS The structure of information & abstract meanings Few universal facts re-used & repeated most often Connect business functions & even businesses Manage Emotions unleashed by change Best practices for governing change through directed evolution GROUPING & INHERITANCE OF FACTS SHAPED BY THE REAL WORLD
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta OUR APPROACH TO THE SEMANTICS OF KNOWLEDGE
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta METAMODEL OF KNOWLEDGE: CORE CONCEPTS The semantics of Pattern –Information content and structure The metamodel of abstract knowledge is based on –Semantics of information structure derived from “Pattern” –Contains the ontology and semantics of abstract components –A few key concepts Constraints convey information, reduce the freedom of a pattern The Principle of subtyping by adding information The Principle of Parsimony; mutability –Temporal Objects have history –Domain captures the concept of “measurability” –The properties of objects emerge from their intersections with domains The metamodel of business process is a polymorphism of the generic metamodel of knowledge –Obtained by adding temporal information to “Relationship” –Semi and Unstructured processes –Governing processes
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta A Domain Domains are non-temporal object classes –Class of values Eg: Length, mass, affinity/preference, gender etc. “Value” includes “Any” (i.e., “All”) “Don’t Know” “Null”
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Properties of objects emerge from their relationships with Domains Relationships between Domains create more complex domains, richer in information –Eg: Time vs Time difference, Money vs. Unit Price etc There are a few fundamental domains from which all other domains emerge Eg: Mass Eg: Length Eg: Width
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta OUR APPROACH TO BUSINESS KNOWLEDGE REUSE
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Business Problem Solutions Components Solutions Components Industry Knowledge Competencies Products/Services Core Methods & Techniques Support Center / Infrastructure Financial Services Manufacturing Retail Distribution etc.. Our Approach to patterns of reusable business knowledge: Combine industry knowledge with solution components. The Universal Perspective
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta The Problem of Perspective Is resolved by a universal ontology and patterns that capture and codify universally shared business knowledge in computer storable form Structured and unstructured Implicit and explicit
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta A FEW EXAMPLES OF GENERIC BUSINESS PATTERNS Shipment-Transportation Cluster Document-Information Cluster Tasks/Processes Agreement & Ownership Buying-Selling Forging of products Financial Cluster: Funding, Payments etc. + Many More ALL PART OF AN INTEGRATED UNIVERSAL PATTERN THE UNIVERSAL PERSPECTIVE
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Integrate & coordinate knowledge across the enterprise and Supply Chain
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta The Business Knowledge Standard Standard Ontology of knowledge components Standard patterns (semantics) of widely reused knowledge configured from components
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta BUSINESS KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT “The challenge is to exploit the changing business and technology climate” - Judith Hurwitz TECHNOLOGY RULES & CONSTRAINTS INTERFACE RULES (HUMAN & AUTOMATION) INFORMATION SOURCING & DISTRIBUTION RULES BUSINESS RULES CORPORATE ELECTRONIC KNOWLEDGE REPOSITORY (Patterns reused most frequently across enterprise) Rule Maintenance TECHNOLOGY RULES & CONSTRAINTS INTERFACE RULES (HUMAN & AUTOMATION) INFORMATION SOURCING & DISTRIBUTION RULES BUSINESS RULES LOCAL ELECTRONIC KNOWLEDGE REPOSITORY Pattern Exchange Rule Maintenance New/Updated Application TECHNOLOGY RULES & CONSTRAINTS INTERFACE RULES (HUMAN & AUTOMATION) INFORMATION SOURCING & DISTRIBUTION RULES BUSINESS RULES LOCAL ELECTRONIC KNOWLEDGE REPOSITORY Rule Maintenance New/Updated Application Automated systems maintenance Pattern Exchange
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta PATTERNS
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta EXAMPLES OF KNOWLEDGE REUSE
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta An example of how business rules are assembled from meanings…
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta An example of how business processes are assembled from meanings
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta An example of how domains are built from components
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta A Knowledge Artifact is an abstract meaning Formatting Rules Sequencing Rules Display OBJECT CLASS INFORMATION SOURCING CONNECTION (OPTIONAL) INCLUSION/EXCLUSION SET(S) Components of View VIEW ACTOR Intersection of 0 or more [Intersection of 0 or more ] Union of 0 or more [Union of 0 or more ]..which may be instantiated in an electronic repository
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Properties of objects emerge from relationships with Domains Relationships between Domains create more complex domains, richer in information –Eg: Time vs Time difference, Money vs. Unit Price etc There are a few fundamental domains from which all other domains emerge Eg: Mass Eg: Length Eg: Width
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta BENEFITS
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta The approach augments and integrates the Object, Business Rules and Process Paradigms By aligning it with the real world and adding the semantics of –Pattern Semantics of “structure” Information structure and semantics of “Object” Information Content of a meaning –Measurability and Domain –Constraint –Process Adding Time to Relationship –History Which enables componentization of abstract meanings and The standardization of a natural universal ontology of business meanings and patterns
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta The Benefits of Standardization The Metamodel of Knowledge and The Universal Perspective frame standards that will… –Speed Business process and systems integration across enterprises and supply chains Development of object models and taxonomies with ready to use patterns Data integration, normalization and database design Prototyping and iterative design Integration of legacy systems by providing a translation hub/information broker –Facilitate Automated alignment of business processes and information systems Knowledge, CAPE and CASE tool integration Evaluation of applications software Identification of widely reused, highly resilient business knowledge and business process components Causal analysis –Build Agility and resilience into business processes, information systems, products and services
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Non- Adaptable Systems Autonomous Self Learning Self Adapting Evolving Systems Less versatile INCREASING ADAPTABILITY More versatile Business Knowledge Business Process Computer Process Automated Transform Adaptation Based on conditional Rule Expressions Business Rules Adaptation Based on Polymorphisms carved by parameters of objects & Meanings Knowledge Semantics + Patterns Adaptation of Governance Based on higher order, autonomous governance Higher order governance Patterns & semantics The Journey’s End: Automated Alignment Which leads to..,
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Key Differentiators Quality with Expediency –Start with packaged proof of Concept prototypes –Scenario based approaches allows for identification of major requirements in significantly less time than traditional methods Value –Ready made Knowledge artifacts reduce cost, speed time to market Don’t re-invent the wheel Bring best of breed solutions to bear rapidly on every process reengineering problem –Guarantees generation of deliverables that are value evident ( i.e., “No Fluff!”) –Translation techniques result in analysis and design documents that are truly meaningful to the target audience rather than a compendium of buzzwords
©Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta “WE MUST CHANGE OUR WORLD... THE WAY WE THINK AND ACT, BEFORE WE CAN CHANGE THE BUSINESS WE WORK FOR” - John Zachman
© Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Build business components to facilitate Speed Power Deliver World Class Business Systems Components to customers in support of.
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