Presentation on theme: "Topography of the Brain When you look at a brain you see all these hills and valleys, and these are called sulcus and gyrus. -A sulcus (valley) is a depression."— Presentation transcript:
Topography of the Brain When you look at a brain you see all these hills and valleys, and these are called sulcus and gyrus. -A sulcus (valley) is a depression or fissure in the surface of the brain. -A gyrus (hill) is a ridge on the cerebral cortex, it is generally surrounded by one or more sulci (valleys). There are two hemispheres in the brain. The left and right hemisphere. They are able to communicate with each other through a thick band of 200-250 million nerve fibers called the corpus callosum.
Frontal Lobe Topography and Functions ●Speech ○ (broca’s area) ○ (wernicke’s area) ●Movement ○ (motor cortex) ●Emotional Control Center ●Personality ●Planning and Judgement ○ Last to develop (maturity at 23)
Parietal Lobe ● Named after parietal bone that covers it ● Contains neurons that process sensory information received in other lobes o taste o temperature o touch
● Damage o front- causes numbness and impairs sensation o middle- people are unable to tell right and left apart (right-left disorientation) o right side- loss of motor skills, especially depth perception ● Abnormalities in the parietal lobe are connected to o autism o schizophrenia o Alzheimers
Occipital Lobe -many regions of occipital lobe and they are specialized for different jobs based on vision. -Your occipital lobe helps you see all colors and shapes. -Visuospatial processing, color recognition, and motion perception are some of the things the occipital lobe is responsible for. -known as the “visual processing center” of the brain. It contains the primary visual cortex (found on the surface of occipital lobe) if visual cortex is damaged it can cause blindness
by Hugo Zheng and Chris Mendiola The Temporal Lobe
Location & Main Functions ● It’s location is on the side of the brain and is below the lateral fissure. It is among the most frequently injury to the brain during head injury. ● Usually in the left temporal area includes production of speech, naming and verbal memory. On the right temporal area includes musical abilities, foreign languages, visual memory, and comprehension of the ENVIRONMENT! ● Concerns with perception and recognition of the auditory stimuli(hearing), language comprehension, and memory(hippocampus) ● This lobe is special because it makes sense of all the different sounds and pitches being transmitted from the sensory receptors of the ears. Things about the Temporal Lobe Epilepsy ●There is certain disorders that can happen to the Temporal lobe called epilepsy. Common experiences is seizures, hallucinations of strange voices, music, people, smells, or taste can occur. Here’s a link that discusses Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4lozLfJ8gDA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4lozLfJ8gDA
Facts: ●Named after it’s resemblance to a seahorse ●Humans and other mammals have 2 ●It is apart of the limbic system ●Located under the medical temporal lobe ●Important from short-term memory to long term memory ●A memory “gateway” where new memories must pass before entering permanent storage ●Small curved formation in the brain ●Formation of new memories and with learning and emotions ●Age can also have a major impact on the functioning
Wernicke’s Area By: Allegra Cantu, Jacob Gonzales, Hannah Wilson
Wernicke’s Area ●Region of the brain that contains motor neurons ●Involved in the comprehension of speech and language ●Location: Posterior third of the upper temporal of the left hemisphere of the brain ●Named after Karl Wernicke ●Damage of the temporal lobe may result in a language disorder known as Wernicke Aphasia
Broca’s Area Broca's area is one of the main areas of the cerebral cortex responsible for producing language. This part of the brains was named after Paul Broca, a neurosurgeon, who discovered the purpose of Broca's area while examining the brains of patients with language difficulties. This part of the brain controls motor functions involved with producing speech. People who damage their Broca's area can comprehend language but cannot properly form words or produce speech. Broca's area is connected to another brain region known as Wernicke's area. Wernicke's area is associated with processing and understanding language. Broca's area is found in the frontal lobe in the lefter hemisphere.
Motor Homunculus (Little Man) ●graphic representation of the divisions of the motor cortex ●a human body would look like this if each part grew proportional to the area of the cortex of the brain related to its movement ●larger parts of the image represent the more frequently utilized sensory/motor areas
●Humans have large amounts of cortex devoted to mouth, tongue, and hands. ●smaller pictorial representations represent areas that utilize less movement Motor Homunculus
Limbic System The Limbic system plays a vital role in our emotional life, as well as the formation of memories. The Limbic system is known as the “thinking brain” for subcortical structures such as the hippocampus set levels of arousal as well as being involved with motivation and reinforcing behavior. The forebrain and cerebrum are critical in the functionality of forming long term memories as well as the olfactory structures.
Meninges ●Protective covering of brain and spinal cord. ●3 layers (superficial to deep): o Dura mater: Strong, white fibrous tissue, leather-like. (Dura=tough) o Arachnoid mater: Delicate, spiderweb-like. (Arachnoid=spider) o Pia mater: Transparent, adheres to the outer surface of brain and spinal cord. Contains blood vessels. (Pia=Tender)
Meningitis ●An infection or inflammation of the meninges. It involves the arachnoid or pia mater and it can lead to deafness, deficits in cognitive ability and permanent brain disorders such as epilepsy.
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) ●Primary functions ○Cushions the brain ○Serves as a shock absorber for the central nervous system ●Other Functions ○Circulates nutrients and chemicals filtered from the blood ○Removes waste products from the brain ●Uses ○Examining CSF is very useful in diagnosing diseases of the nervous system including Multiple Sclerosis ○Lumbar puncture draws out CSF
Quadriplegia vs. Paraplegia ★ Also known as tetraplegia. ★ It is a paralysis caused by illness or injury to the cervical area (neck) that results in partial or total loss of use of all of the limbs and torso. ★ The severity of the injury and the place it occured will determine the amount of function a person will maintain. ★ Depending on how severe, some patients have control over some of the top of their arms and other cannot breathe alone. ★ Paraplegia is when the level of spinal cord injury occurs below the first thoracic spinal nerve. ★ The most severe paraplegia would be complete paralysis of the legs and abdomen up to the mid-chest. ★ Paraplegics have full use of their arms and hands.
Blood Brain Barrier A semi-permiable barrier that prevents certain materials in the blood from entering the brain Functions are: -protects the brain from foreign substances -protects the brain from hormones and neurotransmitters in the rest of the body -maintains constant environment for the brain
Autonomic Nervous System ●Regulates the functions of our internal organs includes: heart, stomach, and intestines ●Part of the peripheral NS ●functions involuntary and reflexively ex. we don’t notice when blood vessels change size or when our heart beats faster ●ANS regulates - muscles Smooth muscle(skin, blood vessels, stomach, intestines), cardiac muscle, and the iris - glands
ANS is divided into three parts: -The sympathetic nervous system calls in the “fight” or “flight” response -The parasympathetic nervous system calls for “rest” and “digest” -The enteric nervous system nerve fibers that innervate the viscera (gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and gall bladder)
Somatic Nervous System ●The Somatic nervous System also consists of different motor pathways o Somatic Sensory division- motor pathways make up this system provides feedback from the somatic effectors ●The Somatic Nervous System carries information to somatic effectors. o Somatic effectors- skeletal muscles. ●This system also includes centers that receive the sensory information. This then creates a response signal.