2Responsibilities of a DBA Installing and upgrading the Oracle server and application toolsAllocating system storage and planning future storage requirements for the database systemCreating primary database storage structures (tablespaces) after application developers have designed an applicationCreating primary objects (tables, views, indexes) once application developers have designed an applicationModifying the database structure, as necessary, from information given by application developersEnrolling users and maintaining system securityEnsuring compliance with your Oracle license agreementControlling and monitoring user access to the databaseMonitoring and optimizing the performance of the databasePlanning for backup and recovery of database informationMaintaining archived data on tapeBacking up and restoring the databaseContacting Oracle Corporation for technical support
3What is grid computing?Grid computing is a term referring to the federation of computer resources from multiple administrative domains to reach a common goal.Islands of computing within organizations make inefficient use of resources.Systems are slow to change and expensive to maintain.Grid computing addresses these problems by providing an adaptive software infrastructuremakes efficient use of low-cost servers and modular storage,balances workloads more effectively and provides capacity on demand.By scaling out with small servers in small incrementsperformance and reliability at low-cost.New unified managementmanage everything cheaply and simply in the grid
4Grid computingEnables groups of networked computers to be pooled and provisioned on demand to meet the changing needs of business.Instead of dedicated servers and storage for each application, grid computing enables multiple applications to share computing infrastructureresulting in much greater flexibility, cost, power efficiency, performance, scalability and availability, all at the same time.Instead of buying oversized systems for peak periods or uncertain growth, scale out computing capacity on demand in smaller units.Remove unneeded or failed machines without interruptions in service, saving cost and ensuring business continuity.Manage all your systems end-to-end with integrated and automated administration and monitoring.
5Fundamental Attributes of Grid Computing Virtualization,Dynamic Provisioning,Resource Pooling,Self-adaptive Systems,Unified Management
6Benefits Of Grid Computing Using Oracle 11g Ending the paralysis that results from having computer and storage systems locked down on specific applications, databases, and filesEnabling operations and administrative staff to flexibly assign compute and storage resources as needed, enabling them to avoid locked-down and overprovisioned resourcesProviding a means for easily assigning and tuning resources to meet the business’ service levelsReducing cost and enhancing business agility by more effective utilization of resources using commodity hardware
7Oracle Database 11g: “g” Stands for Grid Open Grid Forum (OGF)Oracle’s grid infrastructure:Low costHigh quality of serviceEasy to manageAutomaticStorageManagementRealApplicationClustersServerEnterpriseManager Grid ControlStorage gridDatabase gridApplication gridGrid controlOracle Database 11g: “g” Stands for GridOpen Grid Forum (OGF) is a standards body that develops standards for grid computing. It comprises a set of committees and working groups that focus on various aspects of grid computing. The committees and working groups are composed of participants from academia, the research community, and (increasingly) commercial companies. You can see the website of OGF atOracle has created the grid computing infrastructure software that balances all types of workloads across servers and enables all those servers to be managed as one complete system. Grid computing can achieve the same very high level of reliability as mainframe computing because all components are clustered. But unlike mainframes and large UNIX symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) servers, a grid can be built with open system technologies, such as Intel processors and the Linux operating system, at a very low cost.Oracle’s grid computing technology includes:Automatic Storage Management (ASM)Real Application Clusters (RAC)Application Server ClustersEnterprise Manager Grid ControlOracle Database 11g: Administration Workshop I I - 7
8Oracle Database 11g: “g” Stands for Grid Oracle grid computing infrastructure softwarebalances all types of workloads across servers andenables all those servers to be managed as one complete system.Grid computing achieves the same very high level of reliability as mainframe computing because all components are clustered.Unlike mainframes and large UNIX symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) servers, a grid can be built with open system technologies, such as Intel processors and the Linux operating system, at a very low cost.
9Oracle Database 11g: “g” Stands for Grid Oracle’s grid computing technology includes:Automatic Storage Management (ASM)Real Application Clusters (RAC)Application Server ClustersEnterprise Manager Grid Control
10Automatic Storage Management Spreads database data across all disks,Creates and maintains a storage grid, and provides the highest input/output (I/O) throughput with minimal management costsAs disks are added or dropped, ASM redistributes the data automaticallyThere is no need for a logical volume manager to manage the file systemData availability increases with optional mirroringyou can add or drop disks online.
11Real Application Clusters Runs and scales all application workloads on a cluster of servers and offers the following features:Integrated clusterware: This includes functionality for cluster connectivity, messaging and locking, cluster control, and recovery. It is available on all platforms that are supported by Oracle Database 10g or later.Automatic workload management: Rules can be defined to automatically allocate processing resources to each service both during normal operations and in response to failures. These rules can be dynamically modified to meet the changing business needs. This dynamic resource allocation within a database grid is unique to Oracle RAC.Automatic event notification to the mid-tier: When a cluster configuration changes, the mid-tier can immediately adapt to instance failover or availability of a new instance. This enables end users to continue working in the event of instance failover without the delays typically caused by network timeouts. In the event of new instance availability, the mid-tier can immediately start load balancing connections to that instance. Oracle Database 10g or later Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) drivers have the “fast connection failover” functionality that can be automatically enabled to handle these events.
12Oracle WebLogic Application Grid works with any application serverOracle WebLogic Server, IBM WebSphere Application Server, and JBoss Application Server - or in a pure grid environment without an application server.provides extreme and predictable application scalability and performance.With capacity on demand, can linearly scale out middleware infrastructure from a few to thousands of servers.it provides fast access to frequently used data. Leveraging this grid capability, computation can be done in parallel, further improving application performance
13Enterprise Manager Grid Control manages gridwide operations that include managing the entire stack of software, provisioning users, cloning databases, and managing patches.monitors the performance of all applications from the point of view of your end users.Grid Control views the performance and availability of the grid infrastructure as a unified whole rather than as isolated storage units, databases, and application servers.Makes it possible to group hardware nodes, databases, and application servers into single logical entities and manage a group of targets as one unit
14Grid Infrastructure for Single-Instance Grid Infrastructure for Single-Instance is introduced with Oracle Database 11g Release 2.Is installed from the clusterware media, separate from Oracle database softwareContains Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM)Contains Oracle Restart – a high availability solution for non-clustered databasesCan monitor and restart the following components:Database InstancesOracle Net ListenerDatabase ServicesAutomatic Storage Management (ASM) InstanceASM Disk GroupsOracle Notification Services (ONS/eONS) for Data GuardOracle Database 11g: Administration Workshop I I - 14
15Grid infrastructure for Single-Instance Oracle Restart is designed to improve the availability of your Oracle database.It implements a high availability solution for single instance (non-clustered) environments only.For Oracle Real Application Cluster (Oracle RAC) environments, the functionality to automatically restart components is provided by Oracle Clusterware.Oracle Restart ensures that the components are started in the proper order, in accordance with component dependencies.If a component must be shut down, it ensures that the dependent components are cleanly shut down first.Oracle Restart runs out of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home, which you install separately from Oracle database homes.