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Regulation Chapter 9- Regulation Regulation: –T–The coordination and control of the life activities. –T–The internal environment must remain stable 

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Presentation on theme: "Regulation Chapter 9- Regulation Regulation: –T–The coordination and control of the life activities. –T–The internal environment must remain stable "— Presentation transcript:

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2 Regulation

3 Chapter 9- Regulation Regulation: –T–The coordination and control of the life activities. –T–The internal environment must remain stable  Homeostasis.

4 Nervous and Endocrine systems Stimulus: – Any change in the internal or external environment that causes a response. Response: – Reaction to a stimulus. Receptors: – Structures that are specialized to receive certain stimuli. Ex. Five senses.

5 Impulse: – An electrochemical charge generated along a neuron. The message! Effectors: – Parts of the body that respond. Ex. Muscles or glands.

6 Neuron

7 Neurons

8 The Neuron: – Aka nerve cell- receives and transmits impulses. – Composed of: Dendrites – Detect stimulus – Cell branches – Receives impulses Cyton – Cell body that contains the nucleus Axon – Branch of the cell that transmits impulses away from the cyton. Terminal branches – End of the axon – Secretes neurotransmitters (made by synaptic knobs)

9 Synapse: – Gap (space) between neurons – Neurotransmitters: – Chemicals secreted into the synapse  by terminal branches. – Helps impulses jump the synapse. – Example  acetylcholine, norepinephrine

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13 Types of Neurons: Pathway is always sensory ->inter->motor Sensory neuron: – Carries impulse from receptors (5 senses) to brain and spinal cord (CNS). Interneuron: – Neuron found between sensory and motor neurons. – Located in brain and spinal cord. Motor neurons: – Carries impulse away from brain and spinal cord (CNS) to the effectors (muscles or glands).

14 The Central Nervous System -made up of the brain and spinal cord -Interneurons here

15 The Brain: Composed of millions of neurons – 3 divisions cerebrum: largest part of the brain area where sensory impulses are interpreted memory, thinking, and reasoning

16 cerebellum: – Balance and motor coordination medulla: – connects spinal cord to the brain. – Controls involuntary activity: breathing, heart beat, digestion

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18 The Spinal Cord: Thick nerve located within the vertebrae. Protected by: vertebrae, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid. Connects directly with the base of the brain. Function: center for the reflex action – Reflexes: simple, involuntary, inborn patterns of behavior. – Reflex arc: pathway over which impulses travel. Stimulus  receptor  sensory neuron  interneuron  motor neuron  effectors (RSIME!!)

19 YouTube - Central Nervous System, Reflex Arc

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26 The peripheral nervous system (PNS) Nerves outside CNS Carry impulses to other parts of the body. Breaks into somatic and autonomic – Somatic – voluntary activities Ex: batting a ball – Autonomic – involuntary activities Ex: breathing

27 Malfunctions of the Nervous System Cerebral Palsy May occur before/during /after birth. Damage to the motor areas of the brain. Difficulty in coordinating voluntary muscle Meningitis Inflammation of the meninges. It can be viral or bacterial.

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29 Stroke Supply of blood to the brain is cut off. A clot or a hemorrhage can form. Brain damage and paralysis occurs. Polio Viral disease of the CNS. Results in paralysis.**Immunization- Salk and Sabin vaccine

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