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Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow. Biology and Behavior: Studying the Last Frontier Neuroscience Involves study of the brain and nervous system Biological psychology.

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Presentation on theme: "Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow. Biology and Behavior: Studying the Last Frontier Neuroscience Involves study of the brain and nervous system Biological psychology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow

2 Biology and Behavior: Studying the Last Frontier Neuroscience Involves study of the brain and nervous system Biological psychology Focuses on how the brain and other biological systems influence human behavior

3 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow

4 Can you identify the structure of a typical neuron? DendritesCell bodyAxonMyelin sheathTerminal budsSynapse

5 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow Biology and Behavior Glia to the Rescue A scanning electron micrograph shows neurons (green) and glia (orange). Glial cells serve as the “glue” of the nervous system, providing cohesion and support for the neurons. Thomas Deerinck, NCMIR / Science Source

6 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow COMMUNICATION WITHIN NEURONS 1.THE NEURON AT REST 2. THE ACTION POTENTIAL 3. ACTION POTENTIAL TRAVELS LENGTH OF AXON

7 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow Biology and Behavior: Studying the Last Frontier COMMUNICATION WITHIN AND BETWEEN Resting potential Electrical potential of cell at rest -70 mv

8 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow Biology and Behavior: Studying the Last Frontier COMMUNICATION WITHIN AND BETWEEN Action potential Spike in electrical energy that passes through the axon of a neuron, purpose of which is to convey information “all-or-none”

9 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow Biology and Behavior: COMMUNICATION WITHIN AND BETWEEN Myelin sheath insulates and protects the tiny spikes in electricity happening inside the axon. Action potential “skips” over the segments of myelin, hopping from one node to the next, instead of traversing the entire length of the axon. MYELIN Protein that envelops and insulates the axon, facilitating faster transmission of the impulse. Jean-Claude Revy, ISM/Phototake

10 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow Biology and Behavior: Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers that neurons use to communicate at the synapse Receptor sites Location where neurotransmitters attach on the receiving side of the synaptic gap Reuptake Process by which neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the sending terminal bud

11 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow Synaptic Transmission Sending neurons transmit their messages to receiving neurons by electrochemical action. When a neuron fires, the action potential arrives at the axon terminal and triggers the release of neurotransmitters from the synaptic vesicles. Neurotransmitters flow into the synaptic cleft and move toward the receiving neuron, which has numerous receptors. The receptors will bind only with neurotransmitters whose molecular shapes match their enclosed volumes. Neurotransmitters influence the receiving neuron to fire or not to fire.

12 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow Biology and Behavior Axon terminal of a sending neuron interacts with the dendrites of a receiving neuron by releasing chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) into the synapse. Once the neurotransmitters migrate across the gap and latch onto the dendrite’s receptor sites, the message has been conveyed. The Synapse Carol and Mike Werner/Science Source

13 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow

14 NEUROTRANSMITTERS Acetylcholine Relays messages from motor neurons to muscles, enabling movement; involved in memory Too much = spasms; too little = paralysis Glutamate Makes neurons fire; central role in memory and learning Too much = strokes; too little = schizophrenia GABA Inhibits neurotransmitter firing; contributes to motor control, vision Too little = anxiety

15 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow NEUROTRANSMITTERS Norepinephrine Has variety of effects in CNS; helps body prepare for stress Epinephrine Adrenaline; physical booster; fight/flight response Serotonin Plays key role in controlling appetite, aggression, and mood; regulates sleep and breathing Dopamine Plays role in modulating mood; plays central role in positive reinforcement and dependency; involuntary behavior

16 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow NEUROTRANSMITTERS Endorphins Regulates secretion of other neurotransmitter; naturally produced opioids; reduces pain and elevates mood Agonists Interfere at level of synapse; increase normal neurotransmitter activity’ mimics NT activity or blocks reuptake Antagonists Interfere at level of synapse; decrease normal neurotransmitter activity

17 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow The Human Nervous System The nervous system is divided into two parts: the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system. The diagram shows the relationships among the parts of the nervous system and provides a brief description of the functions of those parts.

18 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow The Peripheral Nervous System Includes all neurons not in Central Nervous System (CNS) Supplies CNS with information about body’s environment Made up of 2 subdivisions: Somatic Autonomic

19 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Includes sensory nerves and motor nerves Gathers information from sensory receptors Controls the skeletal muscles responsible for voluntary movement

20 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow The Supporting Systems Sensory neurons Receive information about the environment from the sensory systems and convey this to the brain for processing Motor neurons Carry information from CNS to produce movement; provide mechanism regulated by spinal cord and brain Interneurons Resides in brain and spinal cord; act as bridges connecting sensory and motor neurons

21 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Regulates involuntary activity Has two divisions involved in physiological responses to stress or crisis situations Sympathetic nervous system – fight or flight Parasympathetic nervous system – rest and digest

22 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow THE SYMPATHETIC AND PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM PhotoObjects.net/Thinkstock

23 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow The Supporting Systems The Central Nervous System Spinal cord Allows communication between the brain and the peripheral nervous system Connects with the body’s muscles, glands, and organs

24 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow BRAINSTEM AND CEREBELLUM Medulla Controls heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing, coughing, swallowing Reticular formation Controls levels of arousal and quickly analyzes sensory information on its way to the cortex Pons Involved in sleep and dreaming Cerebellum Involves muscle coordination, posture and balance May also affect fine distinctions in cognition

25 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow Digging Below the Cortex: Identify Functions HippocampusAmygdalaThalamusHypothalamus

26 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow The Hemispheres RIGHT BRAIN, LEFT BRAIN: THE TWO HEMISPHERES Cerebrum Includes largest, most highly developed part of brain Involved in intelligence, personality, thinking, perceiving, planning and organization, language, sensation, motor functions Divided into right and left hemispheres and covered by corpus callosum

27 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow Two Hemispheres The cerebrum looks like a walnut with its two wrinkled halves. Regions of the left and right hemispheres specialize in different activities, but the two sides of the brain are constantly communicating and collaborating. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the right. This explains why Brandon, who was shot on the left side of his head, suffered paralysis and loss of sensation on the right half of his body. Science Source/Photo Researchers, Inc. Colorization by: Eric Cohe

28 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow The Hemispheres LATERALIZATION Left hemisphere plays a crucial role in language processing and right hemisphere plays a crucial role in managing visual spatial tasks. But Hemispheres constantly integrate and share information. Corpus Callosum

29 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow Assigning functions to one hemisphere or the other allows the brain to function more efficiently.

30 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow THE LOBES: UP CLOSE AND PERSONAL

31 Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow The Hemispheres LANGUAGE AREA AND THE BRAIN Broca’s area Wernicke’s area Broca’s area


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