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Organizational Patterns Review RULES Flip a coin to see which team receives the ball first. Let them decide which side of the field they want. Each individual.

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Presentation on theme: "Organizational Patterns Review RULES Flip a coin to see which team receives the ball first. Let them decide which side of the field they want. Each individual."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organizational Patterns Review RULES Flip a coin to see which team receives the ball first. Let them decide which side of the field they want. Each individual team member must help the rest of their team answer EACH question. Each team member must share out an answer at least once! If the team answers correctly, 10 yards are awarded. Be sure to move the football. A FUMBLE occurs if the team gives the wrong answer. It becomes the other team's turn, and they get the same question. An INELIGIBLE RECEIVER is a wrong player on the team giving the answer. It becomes the other team's turn, and they get a new question. It is time to PUNT when the ball is fumbled three consecutive times. Say, "Punt." The first person from either team to raise his hand and give the correct answer is awarded 10 yards and his team gets a new question. If a team gets a TOUCHDOWN, award six points. The additional point may be earned by answering another question.

2 Organizational Patterns Review Beginning of a Football Game First there is a coin toss. At the coin toss, captains from both teams meet the referee in the center of the field; the captain who correctly calls the flip of the referee’s coin decides whether his team is to receive or to defend a particular goal. Most teams elect to receive the kickoff because they want the ball for their offense. Next comes the team line-ups. There are five players on either side of the kicker. Those ten players line up in a straight line about 8 yards from where the ball is placed on the kicking tee. Third, the kicker strides forward to kick the ball, the ten players move forward in unison, hoping to be in full stride when the kicker makes contact with the ball. After the kick is made, players from both teams advance towards one another which then starts the clock. Identify the organizational structure that is used in the above passage. a)Sequential b)Main idea and details c)Cause/Effect d)Problem/Solution

3 Organizational Patterns Review Beginning of a Football Game First there is a coin toss. At the coin toss, captains from both teams meet the referee in the center of the field; the captain who correctly calls the flip of the referee’s coin decides whether his team is to receive or to defend a particular goal. Most teams elect to receive the kickoff because they want the ball for their offense. Next comes the team line-ups. There are five players on either side of the kicker. Those ten players line up in a straight line about 8 yards from where the ball is placed on the kicking tee. Third, the kicker strides forward to kick the ball, the ten players move forward in unison, hoping to be in full stride when the kicker makes contact with the ball. After the kick is made, players from both teams advance towards one another which then starts the clock. Identify the organizational structure that is used in the above passage. a)Sequential b)Main idea and details c)Cause/Effect d)Problem/Solution

4 Organizational Patterns Review Biography of Jennifer Lawrence Actress Jennifer Lawrence was born in Louisville, Kentucky on August 15, 1990. Her career began when she spent a summer in Manhattan at the age of 14. During that time, she scored some small commercial and film roles, and shortly thereafter her family moved to Los Angeles so she could further pursue her dream. She was cast in the TBS sitcom "The Bill Engvall Show" in 2007, and in smaller movies like The Poker House and The Burning Plain in 2008. Her big break came when she played Ree in Winter's Bone in 2010, which landed her Academy Award and Golden Globe nominations. Shortly thereafter, she secured the role of Mystique in franchise reboot X-Men: First Class, which went on to be a hit in summer 2011. Around this time, Lawrence scored the role of a lifetime when she was cast as Katniss Everdeen in the big-screen adaptation of literary sensation The Hunger Games in 2012. The Hunger Games went on to become one of the highest- grossing movies ever with over $407 million at the domestic box office, and instantly propelled Lawrence to the A-list among young actors/actresses. Three Hunger Games sequels are currently scheduled for release in November 2013, 2014, and 2015. Which best describes the development of the passage as a whole? a)Chronological b)Main idea and details c)Cause/Effect d)Problem/Solution

5 Organizational Patterns Review Biography of Jennifer Lawrence Actress Jennifer Lawrence was born in Louisville, Kentucky on August 15, 1990. Her career began when she spent a summer in Manhattan at the age of 14. During that time, she scored some small commercial and film roles, and shortly thereafter her family moved to Los Angeles so she could further pursue her dream. She was cast in the TBS sitcom "The Bill Engvall Show" in 2007, and in smaller movies like The Poker House and The Burning Plain in 2008. Her big break came when she played Ree in Winter's Bone in 2010, which landed her Academy Award and Golden Globe nominations. Shortly thereafter, she secured the role of Mystique in franchise reboot X-Men: First Class, which went on to be a hit in summer 2011. Around this time, Lawrence scored the role of a lifetime when she was cast as Katniss Everdeen in the big-screen adaptation of literary sensation The Hunger Games in 2012. The Hunger Games went on to become one of the highest- grossing movies ever with over $407 million at the domestic box office, and instantly propelled Lawrence to the A-list among young actors/actresses. Three Hunger Games sequels are currently scheduled for release in November 2013, 2014, and 2015. Which best describes the development of the passage as a whole? a)Chronological b)Main idea and details c)Cause/Effect d)Problem/Solution

6 Organizational Patterns Review Carrying Capacity The carrying capacity of a habitat refers to the amount of plant and animal life its resources can hold. For example, if there are only 80 pounds of food available and there are animals that together need more than 80 pounds of food to survive, one or more animals will die, the habitat can’t ‘carry’ them. Humans have reduced many habitats’ carrying capacity by imposing limiting factors that reduce its carrying capacity such as housing development, road construction, dams, pollution, fires, and acid rain, so that they can maintain full carrying capacity in forest habitats. Congress has enacted legislation that protects endangered habitats from human development or impact. As a result, these areas have high carrying capacities and an abundance of plant and animal life. Identify the organizational structure that is used in the above passage. a)Chronological b)Main idea and details c)Cause/Effect d)Problem/Solution

7 Organizational Patterns Review Carrying Capacity The carrying capacity of a habitat refers to the amount of plant and animal life its resources can hold. For example, if there are only 80 pounds of food available and there are animals that together need more than 80 pounds of food to survive, one or more animals will die, the habitat can’t ‘carry’ them. Humans have reduced many habitats’ carrying capacity by imposing limiting factors that reduce its carrying capacity such as housing development, road construction, dams, pollution, fires, and acid rain, so that they can maintain full carrying capacity in forest habitats. Congress has enacted legislation that protects endangered habitats from human development or impact. As a result, these areas have high carrying capacities and an abundance of plant and animal life. Identify the organizational structure that is used in the above passage. a)Chronological b)Main idea and details c)Cause/Effect d)Problem/Solution

8 Organizational Patterns Review Inventions of Benjamin Franklin While Benjamin Franklin is known as a statesman and diplomat, he was also an accomplished inventor and scientist. Franklin was mainly a printer by profession, but he also investigated natural phenomena, such as ocean currents and lightning. His marine research led to his publication of a map of the Gulf Stream currents. Franklin developed theories about electricity, made famous by his experiment with a kite and a key during a lightning storm. He even invented the lightning rod, which protected buildings from lightning strikes. Always curious and imaginative, Franklin also invented the bifocal glasses, the Franklin stove, an odometer for carriages and a musical instrument called a glass armonica. He investigated evaporation as a cooling technique and designed nautical enhancements, including watertight compartments. Which best describes the development of the passage as a whole? a)Chronological b)Main idea and details c)Cause/Effect d)Problem/Solution

9 Organizational Patterns Review Inventions of Benjamin Franklin While Benjamin Franklin is known as a statesman and diplomat, he was also an accomplished inventor and scientist. Franklin was mainly a printer by profession, but he also investigated natural phenomena, such as ocean currents and lightning. His marine research led to his publication of a map of the Gulf Stream currents. Franklin developed theories about electricity, made famous by his experiment with a kite and a key during a lightning storm. He even invented the lightning rod, which protected buildings from lightning strikes. Always curious and imaginative, Franklin also invented the bifocal glasses, the Franklin stove, an odometer for carriages and a musical instrument called a glass armonica. He investigated evaporation as a cooling technique and designed nautical enhancements, including watertight compartments. Which best describes the development of the passage as a whole? a)Chronological b)Main idea and details c)Cause/Effect d)Problem/Solution

10 Organizational Patterns Review Changes to the Village of South Fork With the sudden rise in value of the land, the peaceful atmosphere of the South Fork began to change. Sagaponack was now the closest public beach to Sag Harbor, and traffic down its main street increased quickly. The old Hildreth store had to expand its services to accommodate the large amount of tourists, and the old village's quiet days were over. A new group of real estate investors, wanting other newcomers to "share our heritage," discovered Sagaponack, where the smaller local farms, unable to compete with the huge farm businesses in the West, had begun to die. Even that oldest family farm in the United States was sold off by the arguing heirs, with most of the money, it was said, gone to the lawyers. Identify the organizational structure that is used in the above passage. a)Chronological b)Main idea and details c)Cause/Effect d)Problem/Solution

11 Organizational Patterns Review Changes to the Village of South Fork With the sudden rise in value of the land, the peaceful atmosphere of the South Fork began to change. Sagaponack was now the closest public beach to Sag Harbor, and traffic down its main street increased quickly. The old Hildreth store had to expand its services to accommodate the large amount of tourists, and the old village's quiet days were over. A new group of real estate investors, wanting other newcomers to "share our heritage," discovered Sagaponack, where the smaller local farms, unable to compete with the huge farm businesses in the West, had begun to die. Even that oldest family farm in the United States was sold off by the arguing heirs, with most of the money, it was said, gone to the lawyers. Identify the organizational structure that is used in the above passage. a)Chronological b)Main idea and details c)Cause/Effect d)Problem/Solution

12 Organizational Patterns Review Josue Alexi Life has never been easy for 14-year-old Josue Alexi. Josue lives in Haiti. Poverty and hunger are problems that he and thousands of Haitians face every day. In January 2010, things got even worse when an earthquake shook Haiti. The quake destroyed thousands of homes. Many people were killed. Josue needed a reason to smile again. He and some of his friends found it in soccer. In July, Josue and 14 teammates traveled to Blaine, Minnesota. They went there to play in the largest youth soccer tournament in the U.S. The players were brought to Minnesota with money raised by two groups. The 15 boys were all under the age of 15. They were able to just be kids for a few weeks and forget about the issues at home. Minnesota families welcomed the teens into their homes. The boys went swimming and ate American food. After the earthquake, the boys ate only once a day. In the U.S., they got pizza, spaghetti, hot dogs, and Pop Tarts. Coming to the U.S. gave the young soccer players a break from their troubles. During the tournament, the boys had fun. They also won the championship for their division. They danced as gold medals were hung around their necks. They sang songs as they were presented with the award, and they smiled. In the passage above, write down all underlined words or phrases that show the passage uses a problem/solution structure.

13 Organizational Patterns Review Josue Alexi Life has never been easy for 14-year-old Josue Alexi. Josue lives in Haiti. Poverty and hunger are problems that he and thousands of Haitians face every day. In January 2010, things got even worse when an earthquake shook Haiti. The quake destroyed thousands of homes. Many people were killed. Josue needed a reason to smile again. He and some of his friends found it in soccer. In July, Josue and 14 teammates traveled to Blaine, Minnesota. They went there to play in the largest youth soccer tournament in the U.S. The players were brought to Minnesota with money raised by two groups. The 15 boys were all under the age of 15. They were able to just be kids for a few weeks and forget about the issues at home. Minnesota families welcomed the teens into their homes. The boys went swimming and ate American food. After the earthquake, the boys ate only once a day. In the U.S., they got pizza, spaghetti, hot dogs, and Pop Tarts. Coming to the U.S. gave the young soccer players a break from their troubles. During the tournament, the boys had fun. They also won the championship for their division. They danced as gold medals were hung around their necks. They sang songs as they were presented with the award, and they smiled. *Must get at least 3 correct to be awarded 10 yards, otherwise it is a fumble.

14 Organizational Patterns Review Making Lasagna: To make the meat sauce, first crumble ground beef into large skillet over medium-high heat. Brown until meat loses its pink color. Spoon off and discard fat. Then stir in spices and tomato sauce and cook until soft. Next, press tomatoes and juice through sieve into meat mixture; discard seeds. Once that is done, add lasagna noodles to boiling salted water, allowing noodles to soften and fit in the pot. Cook until al dente. After that, drain noodles and rinse with cold water. Drain a second time and stack individually over pot rim to prevent sticking. Set aside. Next grease 12 X 8-inch baking dish with butter. Spread noodles in a single layer on clean kitchen (not paper) towel. Pat noodles dry. Now you are ready to arrange three lasagna noodles in single layer, overlapping slightly, in bottom of baking dish. Next, spread half of meat sauce evenly over noodles and half of cheese over meat sauce in an even layer. Repeat layers once. Finally, arrange three lasagna noodles on top. Sprinkle grated cheese evenly on top of lasagna to completely cover lasagna noodles. In passage above, write down all underlined words or phrases that show the passage uses a sequential structure.

15 Organizational Patterns Review Making Lasagna: To make the meat sauce, first crumble ground beef into large skillet over medium-high heat. Brown until meat loses its pink color. Spoon off and discard fat. Then stir in spices and tomato sauce and cook until soft. Next, press tomatoes and juice through sieve into meat mixture; discard seeds. Once that is done, add lasagna noodles to boiling salted water, allowing noodles to soften and fit in the pot. Cook until al dente. After that, drain noodles and rinse with cold water. Drain a second time and stack individually over pot rim to prevent sticking. Set aside. Next grease 12 X 8-inch baking dish with butter. Spread noodles in a single layer on clean kitchen (not paper) towel. Pat noodles dry. Now you are ready to arrange three lasagna noodles in single layer, overlapping slightly, in bottom of baking dish. Next, spread half of meat sauce evenly over noodles and half of cheese over meat sauce in an even layer. Repeat layers once. Finally, arrange three lasagna noodles on top. Sprinkle grated cheese evenly on top of lasagna to completely cover lasagna noodles. *Must get at least 5 correct to be awarded 10 yards, otherwise it is a fumble.

16 Organizational Patterns Review Preparation is Key Sally Stevens, a computer salesperson, prepared extensively for a meeting with a client, Jerry Marx. She studied the history of Jerry’s business and even made sure she remembered details about his family that he had shared with her at past meetings. Consequently, she impressed the client and made a very large sale. Sally’s success did not stop there: the large sale caused her to be promoted by her employer. Write down all words or phrases that indicate that the passage above uses a cause/effect organizational structure. PreparedRemembered Consequently HistoryCausedPromoted

17 Organizational Patterns Review Preparation is Key Sally Stevens, a computer salesperson, prepared extensively for a meeting with a client, Jerry Marx. She studied the history of Jerry’s business and even made sure she remembered details about his family that he had shared with her at past meetings. Consequently, she impressed the client and made a very large sale. Sally’s success did not stop there: the large sale caused her to be promoted by her employer. * Must get at least 3 correct answers to be awarded 10 yards, otherwise it is a fumble. PreparedRemembered Consequently HistoryCausedPromoted

18 Organizational Patterns Review An Excerpt from Anne Frank’s The Diary of a Young Girl Dear Kitty, My head throbs, I honestly don’t know where to begin. On Friday (Good Friday) we played Monopoly, Saturday afternoon too. These days passed quickly and uneventfully. On Sunday afternoon, on my invitation, Peter came to my room at half past four, at a quarter past five we went to the front attic, where we remained until six o’clock. There was a beautiful Mozart concert on the radio from six until a quarter past seven. I enjoyed it all very much, but especially the “Kleine Nachtmusik.” I can hardly listen in the room because I’m always so inwardly stirred when I hear lovely music. Circle all words or phrases that indicate that the passage above uses a chronological organizational structure. On Friday Saturday Days On Sunday afternoon At half past fourA quarter past fivefrontalways Until six o’clockAlllisten

19 Organizational Patterns Review An Excerpt from Anne Frank’s The Diary of a Young Girl Dear Kitty, My head throbs, I honestly don’t know where to begin. On Friday (Good Friday) we played Monopoly, Saturday afternoon too. These days passed quickly and uneventfully. On Sunday afternoon, on my invitation, Peter came to my room at half past four, at a quarter past five we went to the front attic, where we remained until six o’clock. There was a beautiful Mozart concert on the radio from six until a quarter past seven. I enjoyed it all very much, but especially the “Kleine Nachtmusik.” I can hardly listen in the room because I’m always so inwardly stirred when I hear lovely music. * Must get at least 5 correct answers to be awarded 10 yards, otherwise it is a fumble. On Friday Saturday Days On Sunday afternoon At half past fourA quarter past fivefrontalways Until six o’clockAlllisten

20 Organizational Patterns Review Robot Servants Someday we will all have robots that will be our personal servants. They will look and behave much like real humans. We will be able to talk to these mechanical helpers and they will be able to respond kindly. Amazingly, the robots of the future will be able to learn from experience. They will be smart, strong, and untiring workers whose only goal will be to make our lives easier. Which detail best shows that robots will one day serve people. a) “They will look and behave much like real humans.” b) “We will be able to talk to these mechanical helpers and they will be able to respond kindly. c) “Amazingly, the robots of the future will be able to learn from experience.” d) “They will be smart, strong, and untiring workers whose only goal will be able to make our lives easier.

21 Organizational Patterns Review Robot Servants Someday we will all have robots that will be our personal servants. They will look and behave much like real humans. We will be able to talk to these mechanical helpers and they will be able to respond kindly. Amazingly, the robots of the future will be able to learn from experience. They will be smart, strong, and untiring workers whose only goal will be to make our lives easier. Which detail best shows that robots will one day serve people. a) “They will look and behave much like real humans.” b) “We will be able to talk to these mechanical helpers and they will be able to respond kindly. c) “Amazingly, the robots of the future will be able to learn from experience.” d) “They will be smart, strong, and untiring workers whose only goal will be able to make our lives easier.

22 Organizational Patterns Review The Beginning of World War II The war in Europe began in September 1939, when Germany, under Chancellor Adolf Hitler, invaded Poland. Britain and France responded by declaring war on Germany but took little action over the following months. In 1940, Germany launched its next initiative by attacking Denmark and Norway, followed shortly thereafter by attacks on Belgium, the Netherlands, and France. All of these nations were conquered rapidly. Later in the summer of 1940, Germany launched a further attack on Britain, this time exclusively from the air. The Battle of Britain was Germany’s first military failure, as the German air force, the Luftwaffe, was never able to overcome Britain’s Royal Air Force. How does the chronological structure affect the overall organization of the paragraph above? a)It supports the overall organization of the paragraph by comparing and contrasting the three different time periods b)It weakens the overall organization of the paragraph by changing the focus of the paragraph c)It weakens the overall organization of the paragraph by discussing fluctuating time periods d)It supports the overall organization of the paragraph by providing a logical time order

23 Organizational Patterns Review The Beginning of World War II The war in Europe began in September 1939, when Germany, under Chancellor Adolf Hitler, invaded Poland. Britain and France responded by declaring war on Germany but took little action over the following months. In 1940, Germany launched its next initiative by attacking Denmark and Norway, followed shortly thereafter by attacks on Belgium, the Netherlands, and France. All of these nations were conquered rapidly. Later in the summer of 1940, Germany launched a further attack on Britain, this time exclusively from the air. The Battle of Britain was Germany’s first military failure, as the German air force, the Luftwaffe, was never able to overcome Britain’s Royal Air Force. How does the chronological structure affect the overall organization of the paragraph above? a)It supports the overall organization of the paragraph by comparing and contrasting the three different time periods b)It weakens the overall organization of the paragraph by changing the focus of the paragraph c)It weakens the overall organization of the paragraph by discussing fluctuating time periods d)It supports the overall organization of the paragraph by providing a logical time order

24 Organizational Patterns Review The Hurricane So rapid was the progress of the storm, that before I could think of taking measures to insure my safety, the hurricane was passing opposite the place where I stood. Never can I forget the scene which at that moment presented itself. The tops of the trees were seen moving in the strangest manner, in the central current of the tempest, which carried along with it a mingled mass of twigs and foliage, that completely obscured the view. Some of the largest trees were seen bending and writhing under the gale; others suddenly snapped across; and many, after a momentary resistance, fell uprooted to the earth. The mass of branches, twigs, foliage, and dust that moved through the air, was whirled onward like a cloud of feathers, and on passing, disclosed a wide space filled with fallen trees, naked stumps, and heaps of shapeless ruins, which marked the path of the tempest. What is the effect of the author’s use of cause/effect structure of the above passage? a)It lists reasons for why the storm progressed. b)It presents the reasons why the storm began, which helps the reader understand significant effects that the hurricane had on the area. c)It shows that the effects of the hurricane, focusing on the beginning of the storm. d)It does not focus on reasons why the storm began, but lists significant effects of the damage caused by the hurricane.

25 Organizational Patterns Review The Hurricane So rapid was the progress of the storm, that before I could think of taking measures to insure my safety, the hurricane was passing opposite the place where I stood. Never can I forget the scene which at that moment presented itself. The tops of the trees were seen moving in the strangest manner, in the central current of the tempest, which carried along with it a mingled mass of twigs and foliage, that completely obscured the view. Some of the largest trees were seen bending and writhing under the gale; others suddenly snapped across; and many, after a momentary resistance, fell uprooted to the earth. The mass of branches, twigs, foliage, and dust that moved through the air, was whirled onward like a cloud of feathers, and on passing, disclosed a wide space filled with fallen trees, naked stumps, and heaps of shapeless ruins, which marked the path of the tempest. What is the effect of the author’s use of cause/effect structure of the above passage? a)It lists reasons for why the storm progressed. b)It presents the reasons why the storm began, which helps the reader understand significant effects that the hurricane had on the area. c)It shows that the effects of the hurricane, focusing on the beginning of the storm. d)It does not focus on reasons why the storm began, but lists significant effects of the damage caused by the hurricane.

26 Organizational Patterns Review The Life of Cabmen and their Horses Cabmen who drive a horse and carriage. For some people Christmas and the New Year are very merry times; but for cabmen and cabmen’s horses it is no holiday, though it may be a harvest. There are so many parties, balls, and places of amusement open that the work is hard and often late. Sometimes driver and horse have to wait for hours in the rain or frost, shivering with the cold, while the merry people within a party are dancing away to the music. I wonder if the beautiful ladies ever think of the weary cabman waiting on his box, and his patient beast standing, till his legs get stiff with cold. The main idea of the passage is: a)For cabmen and cabmen’s horses, Christmas is no holiday, though it may be a harvest. b)Cabmen and their horses have a very tough job, particularly around the holidays. c)Sometimes driver and horse have to wait for hours in the rain or frost, shivering with the cold, while the merry people within a party are dancing away to the music. d)Cabmen and their horses have a very tough job around the holidays, but it can be very financially rewarding.

27 Organizational Patterns Review The Life of Cabmen and their Horses Cabmen who drive a horse and carriage. For some people Christmas and the New Year are very merry times; but for cabmen and cabmen’s horses it is no holiday, though it may be a harvest. There are so many parties, balls, and places of amusement open that the work is hard and often late. Sometimes driver and horse have to wait for hours in the rain or frost, shivering with the cold, while the merry people within a party are dancing away to the music. I wonder if the beautiful ladies ever think of the weary cabman waiting on his box, and his patient beast standing, till his legs get stiff with cold. The main idea of the passage is: a)For cabmen and cabmen’s horses, Christmas is no holiday, though it may be a harvest. b)Cabmen and their horses have a very tough job, particularly around the holidays. c)Sometimes driver and horse have to wait for hours in the rain or frost, shivering with the cold, while the merry people within a party are dancing away to the music. d)Cabmen and their horses have a very tough job around the holidays, but it can be very financially rewarding.

28 Organizational Patterns Review In order to get your driver’s license, you need to complete the following: First you may apply for an Illinois instruction permit—also referred to as a learner’s permit—when you reach 15 years old. You must be enrolled in a state-approved driver’s education course, or be 30 days away from beginning your course. Then you have to pass a vision test, and a written knowledge exam. Once that is done there is a $20 instruction permit fee you have to pay. After you have your IL instruction permit, you may begin the behind-the-wheel portion of your driver’s education course, and you may also begin logging your practice hours with your parent/guardian or licensed driver at least 21 years old. Next, you have to complete a state-approved driver’s education course which consists of 30 hours of classroom instruction, six hours of in-car driving instruction. You will also be required to complete an additional 50 hours of behind-the-wheel driving practice with your parent/guardian or supervising licensed driver at least 21 years old, including 10 hours driven at night. Once you are at least 16 years old and have held your IL instructional permit for at least 9 months without any problems, you are eligible for your initial Illinois driver’s license. Finally you have to take and pass a road test at the time that you apply. What is the effect of the author’s use of sequential structure in the passage above? a)It describes what can because of various choices and what will happen as a result. b)It creates an organized process of getting your license through step by step directions. c)It states similarities and differences between getting your license and getting your learner’s permit. d)It indicates when to complete each step of getting your license.

29 Organizational Patterns Review In order to get your driver’s license, you need to complete the following: First you may apply for an Illinois instruction permit—also referred to as a learner’s permit—when you reach 15 years old. You must be enrolled in a state-approved driver’s education course, or be 30 days away from beginning your course. Then you have to pass a vision test, and a written knowledge exam. Once that is done there is a $20 instruction permit fee you have to pay. After you have your IL instruction permit, you may begin the behind-the-wheel portion of your driver’s education course, and you may also begin logging your practice hours with your parent/guardian or licensed driver at least 21 years old. Next, you have to complete a state-approved driver’s education course which consists of 30 hours of classroom instruction, six hours of in-car driving instruction. You will also be required to complete an additional 50 hours of behind-the-wheel driving practice with your parent/guardian or supervising licensed driver at least 21 years old, including 10 hours driven at night. Once you are at least 16 years old and have held your IL instructional permit for at least 9 months without any problems, you are eligible for your initial Illinois driver’s license. Finally you have to take and pass a road test at the time that you apply. What is the effect of the author’s use of sequential structure in the passage above? a)It describes what can because of various choices and what will happen as a result. b)It creates an organized process of getting your license through step by step directions. c)It states similarities and differences between getting your license and getting your learner’s permit. d)It indicates when to complete each step of getting your license.

30 Organizational Patterns Review Tobi’s Options Beverly Tucker's dog, Tobi, hurt his back. After that, he could not move much of his body. The veterinarian gave Tucker a tough choice: She could pay for an expensive surgery. This would have little chance of success. Or, she could put the animal to sleep. Tucker is like a growing number of pet owners. She chose a third plan: She bought a wheeled cart. It was specially fitted for Tobi's hind legs. The cart allowed her pup to move again. Pet disabilities range from spinal damage to hearing loss. The animals may still struggle more than other pets. However, their futures are no longer as hopeless as before. Today, more animals like Tobi are getting a second chance. This is thanks to better medical care for pets. It is also because of shifting attitudes about animal care. In fact, these animals now may be able to lead long, happy lives. Today, there is more help for owners of disabled pets. There are companies that offer things such as wheeled carts. There are also doctors who treat animal spines. Which best describes the development of the passage as a whole? a)The reference to Tucker’s many options for Tobi’s health indicates main idea and details organization. b)The step by step explanation of the use of a wheel cart indicates a sequential pattern. c)The reasons given for choosing the wheel cart indicate cause and effect organization d)The problem of Tobi’s injury and the solution of the wheel cart indicate problem/solution organization

31 Organizational Patterns Review Tobi’s Options Beverly Tucker's dog, Tobi, hurt his back. After that, he could not move much of his body. The veterinarian gave Tucker a tough choice: She could pay for an expensive surgery. This would have little chance of success. Or, she could put the animal to sleep. Tucker is like a growing number of pet owners. She chose a third plan: She bought a wheeled cart. It was specially fitted for Tobi's hind legs. The cart allowed her pup to move again. Pet disabilities range from spinal damage to hearing loss. The animals may still struggle more than other pets. However, their futures are no longer as hopeless as before. Today, more animals like Tobi are getting a second chance. This is thanks to better medical care for pets. It is also because of shifting attitudes about animal care. In fact, these animals now may be able to lead long, happy lives. Today, there is more help for owners of disabled pets. There are companies that offer things such as wheeled carts. There are also doctors who treat animal spines. Which best describes the development of the passage as a whole? a)The reference to Tucker’s many options for Tobi’s health indicates main idea and details organization. b)The step by step explanation of the use of a wheel cart indicates a sequential pattern. c)The reasons given for choosing the wheel cart indicate cause and effect organization d)The problem of Tobi’s injury and the solution of the wheel cart indicate problem/solution organization

32 Organizational Patterns Review Tobi’s Options Beverly Tucker's dog Tobi hurt his back. After that, he could not move much of his body. The veterinarian gave Tucker a tough choice: She could pay for an expensive surgery. This would have little chance of success. Or, she could put the animal to sleep. Tucker is like a growing number of pet owners. She chose a third plan: She bought a wheeled cart. It was specially fitted for Tobi's hind legs. The cart allowed her pup to move again. Pet disabilities range from spinal damage to hearing loss. The animals may still struggle more than other pets. However, their futures are no longer as hopeless as before. Today, more animals like Tobi are getting a second chance. This is thanks to better medical care for pets. It is also because of shifting attitudes about animal care. In fact, these animals now may be able to lead long, happy lives. Today, there is more help for owners of disabled pets. There are companies that offer things such as wheeled carts. There are also doctors who treat animal spines. Select the reason that would support the author’s choice of problem/solution organizational structure. a)To explain to a reader why it is important to choose wheel carts for your pet if you are ever in a situation like Tucker’s. b)To encourage readers to support wheel carts in order to help dogs in need. c)To allow a reader to understand what can be done to help dogs with paralysis by providing multiple options for recovery. d)To demonstrate to readers the challenges facing dogs with paralysis and to discuss how wheel carts can help them.

33 Organizational Patterns Review Tobi’s Options Beverly Tucker's dog Tobi hurt his back. After that, he could not move much of his body. The veterinarian gave Tucker a tough choice: She could pay for an expensive surgery. This would have little chance of success. Or, she could put the animal to sleep. Tucker is like a growing number of pet owners. She chose a third plan: She bought a wheeled cart. It was specially fitted for Tobi's hind legs. The cart allowed her pup to move again. Pet disabilities range from spinal damage to hearing loss. The animals may still struggle more than other pets. However, their futures are no longer as hopeless as before. Today, more animals like Tobi are getting a second chance. This is thanks to better medical care for pets. It is also because of shifting attitudes about animal care. In fact, these animals now may be able to lead long, happy lives. Today, there is more help for owners of disabled pets. There are companies that offer things such as wheeled carts. There are also doctors who treat animal spines. Select the reason that would support the author’s choice of problem/solution organizational structure. a)To explain to a reader why it is important to choose wheel carts for your pet if you are ever in a situation like Tucker’s. b)To encourage readers to support wheel carts in order to help dogs in need. c)To allow a reader to understand what can be done to help dogs with paralysis by providing multiple options for recovery. d)To demonstrate to readers the challenges facing dogs with paralysis and to discuss how wheel carts can help them.

34 Organizational Patterns Review Tobi’s Options Beverly Tucker's dog Tobi hurt his back. After that, he could not move much of his body. The veterinarian gave Tucker a tough choice: She could pay for an expensive surgery. This would have little chance of success. Or, she could put the animal to sleep. Tucker is like a growing number of pet owners. She chose a third plan: She bought a wheeled cart. It was specially fitted for Tobi's hind legs. The cart allowed her pup to move again. Pet disabilities range from spinal damage to hearing loss. The animals may still struggle more than other pets. However, their futures are no longer as hopeless as before. Today, more animals like Tobi are getting a second chance. This is thanks to better medical care for pets. It is also because of shifting attitudes about animal care. In fact, these animals now may be able to lead long, happy lives. Today, there is more help for owners of disabled pets. There are companies that offer things such as wheeled carts. There are also doctors who treat animal spines. What is the effect of the author’s use of problem/solution structure of the passage? a)It gives reasons that a person should be careful not to let their dog to get hurt, and provides options for care. b)It presents the difficulties that dog paralysis can cause, but offers little in the way of answers. c)It shows that the progression of the difficulties that dog paralysis can cause. d)It presents dog paralysis as a very serious condition, but calms a reader by providing an option for care that allows a dog to live comfortably.

35 Organizational Patterns Review Tobi’s Options Beverly Tucker's dog Tobi hurt his back. After that, he could not move much of his body. The veterinarian gave Tucker a tough choice: She could pay for an expensive surgery. This would have little chance of success. Or, she could put the animal to sleep. Tucker is like a growing number of pet owners. She chose a third plan: She bought a wheeled cart. It was specially fitted for Tobi's hind legs. The cart allowed her pup to move again. Pet disabilities range from spinal damage to hearing loss. The animals may still struggle more than other pets. However, their futures are no longer as hopeless as before. Today, more animals like Tobi are getting a second chance. This is thanks to better medical care for pets. It is also because of shifting attitudes about animal care. In fact, these animals now may be able to lead long, happy lives. Today, there is more help for owners of disabled pets. There are companies that offer things such as wheeled carts. There are also doctors who treat animal spines. What is the effect of the author’s use of problem/solution structure of the passage? a)It gives reasons that a person should be careful not to let their dog to get hurt, and provides options for care. b)It presents the difficulties that dog paralysis can cause, but offers little in the way of answers. c)It shows that the progression of the difficulties that dog paralysis can cause. d)It presents dog paralysis as a very serious condition, but calms a reader by providing an option for care that allows a dog to live comfortably.


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