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9 Argument. CHAPTER 9 Argument ©The New Yorker Collection 1986 Bernard Schoenbaum from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved. In a good argument (such.

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Presentation on theme: "9 Argument. CHAPTER 9 Argument ©The New Yorker Collection 1986 Bernard Schoenbaum from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved. In a good argument (such."— Presentation transcript:

1 9 Argument

2 CHAPTER 9 Argument ©The New Yorker Collection 1986 Bernard Schoenbaum from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved. In a good argument (such as the one that appears to be going on in the above cartoon), the other person listens carefully as we state our case, waiting to see if we really have solid evidence to support our point of view.

3 CHAPTER 9 Argument Argumentation is a part of our everyday dealings with other people. It is also an important part of much of what we read. Authors often try to convince us of their opinions and interpretations.

4 CHAPTER 9 Argument Very often the most important things we must do as critical readers are Recognize the point the author is making. Decide if the author’s support is relevant Decide if the author’s support is adequate.

5 CHAPTER 9 Argument The Basics of Argument: Point and Support Point Evidence A Good Argument A good argument is one in which you make a point and then provide persuasive and logical evidence to back it up.

6 CHAPTER 9 Argument Point: The Beef and Burger Shop is a poor fast-food restaurant. This statement hardly discourages us from visiting the Beef and Burger Shop. But suppose the it is followed by these reasons: Here is a point. The Basics of Argument: Point and Support

7 CHAPTER 9 Argument Point: The Beef and Burger Shop is a poor fast-food restaurant. The Basics of Argument: Point and Support The burgers are full of gristle. The roast beef sandwiches have a chemical taste The fries are lukewarm and soggy. Clearly, these details provide solid support for the point. In light of these details, our mouths are not watering for lunch at the Beef and Burger Shop.

8 CHAPTER 9 Argument The Basics of Argument: Point and Support Clear thinking in an argument means: making a point and providing support that truly backs up that point. A valid argument may also be described as a conclusion supported by logical reasons, facts, examples, and other evidence.

9 CHAPTER 9 Argument The Basics of Argument: Point and Support Point: There are certain creatures in particular that you would never want to bite you. Here is another example. A bite from the venomous king cobra can cause muscle paralysis and lead to respiratory failure in a matter of minutes. A lion’s bite is powerful enough to rip off your arm or take large chunks out of your body A crocodile’s jaws will snap closed like a steel trap, and if the crocodile then decides to roll, you can usually say goodbye to your arm, leg, or whatever is in its mouth. With such solid support, you’re likely to agree that the king cobra, lion, and crocodile are especially scary biters and that a logical point has been made.

10 CHAPTER 9 Argument The Basics of Argument: Point and Support The Point and Support of an Argument Point Support: Facts Support: Examples Support: Reasons Valid Argument To evaluate an argument you need to recognize its point and support.

11 CHAPTER 9 Argument The Basics of Argument: Point and Support / The Point and Supprt of an Argument To see if a sentence is a statement of support, try inserting the word because in front of it. If the statement sounds right, it is probably a statement of support. For example, we could say, “Because the burgers are full of gristle, because the roast beef sandwiches have a chemical taste, and because the fries are lukewarm and soggy, I’ve come to the conclusion that the Beef and Burger Shop is a poor fast-food restaurant.”

12 CHAPTER 9 Argument The Basics of Argument: Point and Support / The Point and Supprt of an Argument For example, we could say, “Because the burgers are full of gristle, because the roast beef sandwiches have a chemical taste, and because the fries are lukewarm and soggy, I’ve come to the conclusion that the Beef and Burger Shop is a poor fast-food restaurant.” Support Point

13 CHAPTER 9 Argument The Basics of Argument: Point and Support / The Point and Supprt of an Argument A. You have constant headaches and blurred vision. B. You should see a doctor. In the pair of statements below, one statement is the point, and the other is support for that point. Which is the point? Which is the support?

14 CHAPTER 9 Argument The Basics of Argument: Point and Support / The Point and Supprt of an Argument A. You have constant headaches and blurred vision. B. You should see a doctor. Support Point You should see a doctor because you have constant headaches and blurred vision.

15 CHAPTER 9 Argument The Basics of Argument: Point and Support / The Point and Supprt of an Argument A. A television is always blaring in one corner of the lounge. B. The student lounge is not a place for quiet study. In the three statements below, one statement is the point, and the other two are support for that point. Which is which? C. There are always people there talking loudly to each other.

16 CHAPTER 9 Argument The Basics of Argument: Point and Support / The Point and Supprt of an Argument A. A television is always blaring in one corner of the lounge. B. The student lounge is not a place for quiet study. C. There are always people there talking loudly to each other. Support Point Support Statements A and C give reasons the lounge is not a place for quiet study.

17 CHAPTER 9 Argument The Basics of Argument: Point and Support / The Point and Supprt of an Argument A. The people upstairs make a lot of noise. B. We’d better look for another apartment. In the four statements below, one statement is the point, and the other three are support for that point. Which is which? C. Roaches seem to be taking over this apartment. D. The landlord does nothing but promise to fix the leaky faucets.

18 CHAPTER 9 Argument The Basics of Argument: Point and Support / The Point and Supprt of an Argument A. The people upstairs make a lot of noise. B. We’d better look for another apartment. In the four statements below, one statement is the point, and the other three are support for that point. Which is which? C. Roaches seem to be taking over this apartment. D. The landlord does nothing but promise to fix the leaky faucets. Support Point Support Noise, roaches, and an unresponsive landlord are three reasons that support the point—that it’s time to look for another apartment. Support

19 CHAPTER 9 Argument Relevant Support Relevant Support Support that really applies to the point is Once you identify the point and support of an argument, you need to decide if each piece of evidence is relevant—in other words, if it really applies to the point.

20 CHAPTER 9 Argument Point: You should lend me money this week. Support: You didn’t lend me money last week when I needed it. Problem: Last week is beside the point; the question is whether or not you should lend him money this week. Not Relevant In their enthusiasm for making an argument, people often bring up irrelevant support. For example, trying to persuade you to lend him some money this week, a friend might say, “You didn’t lend me money last week when I needed it.” Relevant Support

21 CHAPTER 9 Argument Relevant Support Point: My dog Otis is not very bright. A. He cries when I leave for work every day. B. He’s five years old and doesn’t respond to his name yet. Which of the statements below is relevant support for this point about Otis not being very bright?

22 CHAPTER 9 Argument Relevant Support Point: My dog Otis is not very bright. A. He cries when I leave for work every day. B. He’s five years old and doesn’t respond to his name yet. Most dogs know their names, so Otis’s unfamiliarity with his own name reveals a weak memory, and memory is one aspect of intelligence.

23 CHAPTER 9 Argument Relevant Support Point: My dog Otis is not very bright. A. He cries when I leave for work every day. B. He’s five years old and doesn’t respond to his name yet. Not Relevant Even an intelligent dog might be sad when its companions leave the house.

24 CHAPTER 9 Argument Relevant Support Point: My dog Otis is not very bright. C. He often attacks the backyard hedge as if it’s a hostile animal. D. He always gets excited when visitors arrive. Which of the statements below is relevant support for this point about Otis not being very bright?

25 CHAPTER 9 Argument Relevant Support Point: My dog Otis is not very bright. C. He often attacks the backyard hedge as if it’s a hostile animal. D. He always gets excited when visitors arrive. The inability to distinguish between a bush and an animal— friendly or hostile—suggests a lack of analytical skills.

26 CHAPTER 9 Argument Relevant Support Point: My dog Otis is not very bright. C. He often attacks the backyard hedge as if it’s a hostile animal. D. He always gets excited when visitors arrive. Not Relevant Both bright and not-so-bright dogs are happy to see old and new human friends.

27 CHAPTER 9 Argument Adequate Support Adequate Support Support substantial enough to prove the point is A valid argument must include not only relevant support but also an adequate amount of support— enough to prove the point

28 CHAPTER 9 Argument Adequate Support Point: Abortion is wrong. Support: My sister had an abortion and has regretted it ever since. Not Adequate It would not be valid to argue “Abortion is wrong” if this were one’s only support. Such an important issue would require more support than the attitude and experience of a single relative.

29 CHAPTER 9 Argument Adequate Support Support: The first time I went to that beach, I got a bad case of sunburn. The second time I went to that beach, I couldn’t go in the water because of the pollution. The third time I went to that beach, I stepped on a starfish and had to go to the emergency room to have the spikes removed from my foot. Read these three supporting reasons.

30 CHAPTER 9 Argument Adequate Support Support: The first time I went to that beach, I got a bad case of sunburn. The second time I went to that beach, I couldn’t go in the water because of the pollution. The third time I went to that beach, I stepped on a starfish and had to go to the emergency room to have the spikes removed from my foot. That beach is unsafe and should be closed. I’ve had a string of bad experiences at that beach. Beaches are not safe places. A. B. C. Which point do the above reasons adequately support? We’re never going to get this planet cleaned up. D.

31 CHAPTER 9 Argument Adequate Support Support: The first time I went to that beach, I got a bad case of sunburn. The second time I went to that beach, I couldn’t go in the water because of the pollution. The third time I went to that beach, I stepped on a starfish and had to go to the emergency room to have the spikes removed from my foot. That beach is unsafe and should be closed. I’ve had a string of bad experiences at that beach. Beaches are not safe places. A. B. C. Which point do the above reasons adequately support? We’re never going to get this planet cleaned up. D. Answer A is not adequately supported by three isolated instances; we’d need many more reports of dangerous conditions before considering having the beach closed. Not Adequately Supported

32 CHAPTER 9 Argument Adequate Support Support: The first time I went to that beach, I got a bad case of sunburn. The second time I went to that beach, I couldn’t go in the water because of the pollution. The third time I went to that beach, I stepped on a starfish and had to go to the emergency room to have the spikes removed from my foot. That beach is unsafe and should be closed. I’ve had a string of bad experiences at that beach. Beaches are not safe places. A. B. C. Which point do the above reasons adequately support? We’re never going to get this planet cleaned up. D. Answer C is even more poorly supported. We’d need many, many reports of dangerous conditions at beaches worldwide to come to this conclusion. Not Adequately Supported

33 CHAPTER 9 Argument Adequate Support Support: The first time I went to that beach, I got a bad case of sunburn. The second time I went to that beach, I couldn’t go in the water because of the pollution. The third time I went to that beach, I stepped on a starfish and had to go to the emergency room to have the spikes removed from my foot. That beach is unsafe and should be closed. I’ve had a string of bad experiences at that beach. Beaches are not safe places. A. B. C. Which point do the above reasons adequately support? We’re never going to get this planet cleaned up. D. Answer D is supported in part by the reference to pollution in the second statement of support, but the statements about sunburn and the starfish are not examples of pollution. Not Adequately Supported

34 CHAPTER 9 Argument Adequate Support Support: The first time I went to that beach, I got a bad case of sunburn. The second time I went to that beach, I couldn’t go in the water because of the pollution. The third time I went to that beach, I stepped on a starfish and had to go to the emergency room to have the spikes removed from my foot. I’ve had a string of bad experiences at that beach. B. Which point do the above reasons adequately support? Answer B is adequately supported by the three statements. They describe three bad experiences the speaker had at a particular beach.

35 CHAPTER 9 Argument Adequate Support Water polluted I’ve had a string of bad experiences at that beach. Bad case of sunburn Injured by starfish spikes Adequate Support A valid argument… …must have support that is substantial enough to prove the point.

36 CHAPTER 9 Argument Adequate Support Water polluted Beaches are not safe places. Bad case of sunburn Injured by starfish spikes Support That Is Not Adequate If the evidence… …is insufficient to support the argument…

37 CHAPTER 9 Argument Adequate Support Support That Is Not Adequate Injured by starfish spikes Bad case of sunburn Water polluted …the point will not stand. Beaches are not safe places.

38 CHAPTER 9 Argument Adequate Support Support That Is Not Adequate Water polluted Beaches are not safe places. Beaches are not safe places. …the point will not stand. The argument is not valid.

39 CHAPTER 9 Argument Argument in Textbook Writing In most textbook writing, argument takes the form of well-developed ideas or theories.

40 CHAPTER 9 Argument Well-developed ideas or theories Argument: Argument in Textbook Writing

41 CHAPTER 9 Argument Argument in Textbook Writing Well-developed ideas or theories Experiments Surveys Studies Argument: Expert Testimony Reasons Examples Other Evidence Support for the argument takes the form of…

42 CHAPTER 9 Argument Argument in Textbook Writing Well-developed ideas or theories Experiments Surveys Studies Argument: Expert Testimony Reasons Examples Other Evidence Support: Recognizing the author’s points and asking yourself whether the support is relevant and adequate will help you be an involved and critical reader. Adequate?

43 CHAPTER 9 Argument


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