2DefinitionIt’s a mental disorder that shows symptoms and maladaptive behavioral changes with the use of substances that affect the CNS.
3Addiction: The habitual use of substances, such as alcohol, psychoactive drugs, and nicotine, and also compulsive behaviors, such as overeating, use of diet pills
4Substance Use Terminology Drinks alcohol, swallows, smokes, sniffs or injectsDrug misuse:The occasionally inappropriate or unintentional use of a medication.AbuseUse for purposes of intoxication or for Rx beyond intended useDependenceUse despite adverse consequences
5Substance Use Terminology Two types of dependence:Physical dependency:Physiological changes that occur following prolonged substance use (the normal functioning of the person is not maintained until he takes a dose of the drug). Dependency is evidence of tolerancePsychological dependence:It’s craving for a substance that the person over use it over a prolonged period of time..
6Substance Use Terminology ToleranceA need for increased dose of substance in order to achieve the same effect originally brought about by smaller doses of the same substance.More substance is needed to achieve the same effect; or the same amount of the substance is not producing the same effecttCross toleranceTolerance to several drugs from the same classification (a person tolerant to heroin or alcohol will be tolerant to several other CNS depressant)
7Substance Use Terminology Substance WithdrawalIt is a maladaptive behavioral, cognitive, and physiological changes due to the reduction of heavy substance use ( symptoms are substance specific).DetoxificationProcess of safely and effectively withdrawing a person from an addictive substanceRelapseRecurrence of alcohol- or drug-dependent behavior in person who had previously been abstinent.
9To make the effect of the drug more powerful and stronger Drug interactionAddiction (abuse)Is the loss of control over substance intake to the extent that the person increases the dose to the point of dependency.It’s loss of control of alcohol ingestion; drinking despite alcohol related problems, and a tendency to relapse.PotentiatingTo make the effect of the drug more powerful and stronger
10Synergistic effects: Antagonistic effect: Drug interaction Taking some drugs together that helps to intensify or prolong the effects of either or both drugs (combination of alcohol and barbiturate).Antagonistic effect:Is taking a combination of drugs to weaken or inhibit the effect of another drug (algat and barbiturate)
11Substance Use Terminology Co-dependenceAre constellation of maladaptive behaviors that are exhibited by the person who lives with a substance dependent person. These behaviors protect the dependent and enable him/her to continuo their dependency
13Alcohol Use Disorder - Diagnostic Criteria A. A problematic pattern of alcohol use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:1. Alcohol is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended.2. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control alcohol use.
14Alcohol Use Disorder - Diagnostic Criteria 3. A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain alcohol, use alcohol, or recover from its effects.4. Craving, or a strong desire or urge to use alcohol.5. Recurrent alcohol use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.6. Continued alcohol use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of alcohol.
15Alcohol Use Disorder - Diagnostic Criteria 7. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of alcohol use.8. Recurrent alcohol use in situations in which it is physically hazardous.9. Alcohol use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by alcohol.
16Alcohol Use Disorder - Diagnostic Criteria 10. Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:a. A need for markedly increased amounts of alcohol to achieve intoxication or desired effect.b. A markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of alcohol.
17Alcohol Use Disorder - Diagnostic Criteria 11. Withdrawal, as manifested by either of the following:a. The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for alcohol (refer to Criteria A and B of the criteria set for alcohol withdrawal).b. Alcohol (or a closely related substance, such as a benzodiazepine) is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.
18Alcohol Withdrawal Diagnostic Criteria A. Cessation of (or reduction in) alcohol use that has been heavy and prolonged.B. Two (or more) of the following, developing within several hours to a few days after the cessation of (or reduction in) alcohol use described in Criterion A:1. Autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., sweating or pulse rate greater than 100 bpm).2. Increased hand tremor.
19Alcohol Withdrawal Diagnostic Criteria Criteria B continuo3. Insomnia.4. Nausea or vomiting.5. Transient visual, tactile, or auditory hallucinations or illusions.6. Psychomotor agitation.7. Anxiety.8. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures.
20Alcohol Withdrawal Diagnostic Criteria C. The signs or symptoms in Criterion B cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.D. The signs or symptoms are not attributable to another medical condition and are not better explained by another mental disorder, including intoxication or withdrawal from another substance.
21Withdrawal Begin 8+ hours Peak at day 2 Diminish at day 5 Disappear months
22Alcohol Intoxication - Diagnostic Criteria A. Recent ingestion of alcohol.B. Clinically significant problematic behavioral or psychological changes (e.g., inappropriate sexual or aggressive behavior, mood lability, impaired judgment) that developed during, or shortly after, alcohol ingestion.
23Alcohol Intoxication - Diagnostic Criteria C. One (or more) of the following signs or symptoms developing during, or shortly after, alcohol use:1. Slurred speech.2. In-coordination.3. Unsteady gait.4. Nystagmus.5. Impairment in attention or memory.6. Stupor or coma.Exclude physical disorders, psychiatric disorders. Or substance intoxication
24Alcohol blood levels & behavior 0.05 – Changes in mood & normal behavior. Judgment and restraint are loose. Feel carefree0.08— Voluntary motor action clumsy. illegal level0.2— Staggering, Easily angered, shouting, weeping.0.3 – Confusion, Stupor.Coma.Death.
25Behavior Impairment BAC (% by vol.) 0.001–0.029 Average individual appears normalSubtle effects that can be detected with special tests0.030–0.059Mild euphoriaRelaxationJoyousnessTalkativenessDecreased inhibitionConcentration0.060–0.099Blunted feelingsEuphoriaDisinhibitionExtroversionReasoningDepth perceptionPeripheral visionGlare recovery0.100–0.199Over-expressionBoisterousnessPossibility of nausea and vomitingReflexesReaction timeGross motor controlStaggeringSlurred speechTemporary erectile dysfunction
26Behavior Impairment BAC (% by vol.) .200–0.299 Nausea Vomiting Emotional swingsAnger or sadnessPartial loss of understandingImpaired sensationsDecreased libidoPossibility of stuporSevere motor impairmentLoss of consciousnessMemory blackout0.300–0.399StuporCentral nervous system depressionLoss of understandingLapses in and out of consciousnessLow possibility of deathBladder functionBreathingDysequilibriumHeart rate0.400–0.500Severe central nervous system depressionComaPossibility of deathPositional Alcohol Nystagmus>0.50High risk of poisoningHigh possibility of deathLife
27Effects on the Body Peripheral Neuropathy Characterized by peripheral nerve damage, results in pain, burning, tingling sensations of the extremities.It is the direct result of deficiencies in the B vitamins, particularly thiamine.The process is reversible with abstinence from alcohol and restoration of nutritional deficiencies. Otherwise, permanent muscle wasting and paralysis can occur.
28Alcoholic Myopathy Effects on the Body May occur as an acute or chronic condition.In the acute conditionSudden onset of muscle pain,swelling, and weakness;reddish tinge in the urine caused by myoglobin, a breakdown product of muscle excreted in the urine; and a rapid rise in muscle enzymes in the bloodAlcoholic myopathy is thought to be a result of the same B vitamin deficiency that contributes to peripheral neuropathy.Improvement is observed with abstinence from alcohol and the return to a nutritious diet with vitamin supplements
29Wernicke’s encephalopathy Effects on the BodyWernicke’s encephalopathyRepresents the most serious form of thiamine deficiency in alcoholics.Symptoms includeparalysis of the ocular muscles,diplopia,ataxia,somnolence,stupor.If thiamine replacement therapy is not undertaken quickly, death will ensue.
30Korsakoff’s psychosis Is identified by a syndrome of: Effects on the BodyKorsakoff’s psychosisIs identified by a syndrome of:confusion,loss of recent memoryConfabulationIt is frequently encountered in clients recovering from Wernicke’s encephalopathy.Two disorders are usually considered together and are called Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.Treatment is with parenteral or oral thiamine replacement
31Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy Effects on the BodyAlcoholic CardiomyopathyThe effect of alcohol on the heart is an accumulation of lipids in the myocardial cells, resulting in enlargement and a weakened condition.Alcoholic HepatitisIs inflammation of the liver caused by long-term heavy alcohol use.
32Hepatic encephalopathy Leukopenia Thrombocytopenia Sexual Dysfunction Effects on the BodyEsophagitisGastritisPancreatitisCirrhosis of the LiverPortal hypertensionAscites,Esophageal varicesHepatic encephalopathyLeukopeniaThrombocytopeniaSexual Dysfunction
33Predisposing Factors Biological Factors Genetics: Children of alcoholics are four times more likely than other children to become alcoholicMonozygotic twins have a higher rate for concordance of alcoholism than dizygoticbiological offspring of alcoholic parents have a significantly greater incidence of alcoholism than offspring of nonalcoholic parents.Biochemical: the possibility that alcohol may produce morphine-like substances in the brain that are responsible for alcohol addiction.
34Predisposing Factors Psychological Factors Developmental Influences Sadock and Sadock (2007) state, “As a form of self-medication, alcohol may be used to control panic, opioids to diminish anger, and amphetamines to alleviate depression” (p. 386).Certain personality traits are thought to increase a tendency toward addictive behaviorlow self-esteem,frequent depression,passivity,the inability to relaxthe inability to communicate effectivelydepressive responsive styleantisocial personality disorder
35Sociocultural Factors Social Learning Predisposing FactorsSociocultural FactorsSocial LearningThe effects of parents and peers on modeling, imitation, and identification of substance abuse behaviorConditioningMany substances create a pleasurable experience that encourages the user to repeat it.it is the intrinsically reinforcing properties of addictive drugs that “condition” the individual to seek out their use again and again.The environment in which the substance is taken also contributes to the reinforcement. If the environment is pleasurable, substance use is usually increased.
36Cultural and Ethnic Influences Cultural acceptance Predisposing FactorsCultural and Ethnic InfluencesCultural acceptanceAvailability of the substanceMoney
37Alcohol and other drugs are associated with Up to 50% 20 - 35% Spousal abuse%Suicides50%Traffic fatalities62%AssaultsAlcohol andother drugs areassociatedwith52%Rapes49%Murder38%Child abuse68%Manslaughtercharges69%Drownning
38Assessment (Pointers to ask questions) Ask All Patients About Problems In:RelationshipsSchool or jobAccidentsArrestsHealthTHEN tie in substances
39A = Annoyed by family to stop substance intake. G = Feeling of guilt. Assessment AlcoholC = cutting down trialsA = Annoyed by family to stop substance intake.G = Feeling of guilt.E = Need for eye opener in the morning.Have you ever felt you should cut down on your drinking?Have people annoyed you by criticizing your drinking?Have you ever felt bad or guilty about your drinking ?Have you ever had a drink first thing in the morning to steady your nerves or get rid of hang over ( Eye opener)?
40Stages of Treatment Identification Detoxification Physical exam and historyVitamins (multi vitamins and thimine)Reassurance+ Benzodiazepines (CNS depressant)Disulfiram (antabuse) –alcohol-Naltrexone for the treatment of heroinSSRIs -alcohol-TegratolRehabilitationAftercareCounseling & group therapy AA
41Nursing diagnosis Ineffective denial Makes statements such as, “I don’t have a problem with (substance).I can quit any time I want to.” Delays seeking assistance; does not perceive problems related to use of substances; minimizes use of substances; unable to admit impact of disease on life pattern
42Nursing diagnosis Ineffective coping Abuse of chemical agents; destructive behavior toward others and self; inability to meet basic needs; inability to meet role expectations; risk taking
43Nursing DiagnosisImbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements/Deficient fl uid volumeLoss of weight, pale conjunctiva and mucous membranes, decreased skin turgor, electrolyte imbalance, anemia, drinks alcohol instead of eating
44Nursing diagnosis Risk for infection Chronic low self-esteem Risk factors: Malnutrition, altered immune condition, failing to avoid exposure to pathogensChronic low self-esteemCriticizes self and others, self-destructive behavior (abuse of substances as a coping mechanism), dysfunctional family backgroundDeficient knowledgeDenies that substance is harmful; continues to use substance in light of obvious consequences
45Nursing diagnosis Risk for injury Risk for suicide For the client withdrawing from central nervous system (CNS) depressants:Risk factors: CNS agitation (tremors, elevated blood pressure, nausea and vomiting, hallucinations, illusions, tachycardia, anxiety, seizures)Risk for suicideRisk factors: Intense feelings of lassitude and depression; “crashing,” suicidal ideation