Presentation on theme: "Mr. Chris Webb. Overview Dementia is a common condition. In England there are currently 570,000 people living with dementia. That number is expected to."— Presentation transcript:
Overview Dementia is a common condition. In England there are currently 570,000 people living with dementia. That number is expected to double over the next 30 years. Usually dementia occurs in people who are 65 or over. The older the person, the more likely they are to develop dementia. Dementia is slightly more common in women than in men.
Types of dementia. Alzheimers Disease: Small ‘clumps’ of protein known as ‘plaques’ begin to develop around brain cells, this disrupts the brain’s normal working. Vascular dementia: Problems with blood circulation results in the brain not receiving enough oxygen. Dementia with Lewy Bodies Lewy Bodies are abnormal structures which develop inside the brain Frontotemporal dementia The frontal and temporal lobes of the brain begin to shrink. This dementia is much rarer than the others and is usually found in people under 65
Causes of dementia Alzheimer's disease. a combination of factors: age, genetic inheritance, environmental factors, lifestyle and overall general health. In some people, the disease may develop silently for many years before symptoms appear. Vascular dementia. is caused by an interruption in the blood supply to the brain. This is called ‘atherosclerosis’ and may be caused by: Diabetes Obesity Smoking Excess alcohol Lack of exercise High fat diet Lewy Body Dementia. small, circular lumps of protein develop inside the brain. It is not known what causes them. It is also unclear how they damage the brain and cause dementia. One theory is that they block the effects of two neurotransmitters called dopamine and acetylcholine.
Possible signs and symptoms Increasing difficulties with tasks and activities that require concentration and planning Memory loss – initially short term Depression Changes in personality and mood Mental confusion Limited attention span Incontinence Hallucinations Seemingly aimless walking around Slow and unsteady gait Stroke-like symptoms, such as muscle weakness or paralysis on one side of the body
Treatments Cognitive stimulation and reality orientation therapy Behavioural therapy Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors Antipsychotics Good general health and treating physical health problems
Practical tips: (early on) Keep a diary and write down things to be remembered Pin a weekly timetable to a wall which is regularly passed by Put keys in an obvious place such as a large bowl in the hall Have a daily newspaper delivered to be a reminder of the day and date Put labels on cupboards or drawers, Remove cupboard doors so what is inside can be seen easily Purchase a ‘photo’ telephone & programme people’s names and numbers into the phone Write reminders e.g. put a note on the front door to take keys Install safety devices, such as gas detectors and smoke alarms Routine behaviour, set patterns
Outlook There is no cure for dementia and symptoms will get worse over time. People with dementia should try to remain as independent as possible and continue to enjoy their usual activities symptoms usually get worse over time. The progression depends on the personality and general health of the person with dementia and on the type of dementia. Over time, people with dementia will need help to cope at home and may eventually need residential care in a nursing home.