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The Leading Causes of Death:. Target Objectives: We will discuss how disease affects a person and how to prevent it. By the end of class YOU will be able.

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Presentation on theme: "The Leading Causes of Death:. Target Objectives: We will discuss how disease affects a person and how to prevent it. By the end of class YOU will be able."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Leading Causes of Death:

2 Target Objectives: We will discuss how disease affects a person and how to prevent it. By the end of class YOU will be able to understand and discuss the causes of death and what you can do to reduce YOUR risk.

3 #10 SepticemiaSepticemia (BLOOD POISONING) 34,136 deaths/yr Complication of serious infection #9 NephritisNephritis (KIDNEY DISEASE) 43,901 death/yr Injury, poisoning, diabetes, high blood pressure can lead to kidney failure

4 Leading cause of death until 1936 90% of pneumonia & influenza deaths occur in persons age 65 and older #8 PNEUMONIA & INFLUENZA 63,001 death/yr

5 PNEUMONIA - fluid in the lungs; from a viral infection SYMPTOMS - fever, shortness of breath, coughing, chest pain, weakness, chills TREATMENT - antibiotics/hospital care PREVENTION - avoid direct contact with infected person/contaminated objects; get prompt treatment for respiratory infections INFLUENZA - highly contagious, viral respiratory infection SYMPTOMS - headache, chills, sneezing, sore throat, dry cough, body ache, fever TREATMENT - bed rest, fluids PREVENTON - avoid direct contact with infected persons/contaminated objects; flu shots

6 Progressive disease in which the nerve cells in the brain degenerate & the brain shrinks in size Dementia: affecting thought, memory, language & function Due to brain disease or mental impairment Occurs in stages: 1st - loss of interest, forgetfulness, Depression/anxiety 2nd - Increased memory loss 3rd - Disoriented, confused, dependent #7 ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE 71,599 deaths/yr

7 # 6 DIABETES 75,119 deaths/yr INSULIN Carries blood sugar to cells TYPE 1 Produces little or no insulin. Requires insulin injections Symptoms: thirst, urination, nausea, hunger, fatigue, weight loss. Can strike at any age, typically in childhood. TYPE 2 Insulin resistance May be controlled with diet & exercise Affects 92% of people with diabetes 17 million people have diabetes 16 million people have pre-diabetes


9 SYMPTOMS: Increased thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, blurred vision, extreme tiredness, RISK FACTORS: F orty F amily F emale F at TREATMENT: TYPE 1 - Insulin injections TYPE 2 - Weight loss, Diet Physical Activity, Medication COMPLICATIONS: Blindness, Heart disease, Stroke Kidney failure, Loss of circulation to legs/feet, Nerve damage, & Premature death

10 1.Motor vehicles 2.Falls 3.Poisoning 4.Unspecified 5.Suffocation 6. Fire/burns 7. Drowning 8. Injuries 9. Other transportation 10. Airplane disaster ACCIDENTS THAT CAUSE DEATH #5 ACCIDENTS 117,809

11 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases 1.Chronic bronchitis 2.Emphysema RISK FACTORS- anything that increases the chance of acquiring a disease 1.Smoking 2.Age 3.Heredity 4.Pollution #4 CHRONIC LOWER RESPIRATORY DISEASE 130,933 deaths/yr

12 # 3 STROKES 143,579 deaths/yr A condition caused by a blocked or broken blood vessel in the brain Caused by blood clot in brain artery, a burst aneurysm, or head injury Warning signs: slurred speech, paralysis on one side of the body, blurred vision, severe headache, slowed breathing. May result in paralysis, disability, or death RISK FACTORS: high blood pressure, smoking, high cholesterol, heart disease, diabetes

13 Top View of Brain Cerebral hemorrhage

14 #2 CANCER 559,312 deaths/yr The uncontrollable division of cells CARCINOGEN: anything that causes cancer BENIGN TUMOR: non-cancerous/ does not spread. MALIGNANT TUMOR: cancerous/can spread METASTASIS: the spreading of cancer to other regions of the body 1.2 million new cases/year Over 9 million survivors (5+ yrs)

15 Health Stats This graph shows the most common cancers in males and females. Is lung cancer more common in males or females? Why do you think this is the case?

16 MOST COMMON CANCER (Overhead) 1. MELANOMA (SKIN) 2. MALE - PROSTATE FEMALE- BREAST DEADLIEST CANCER LUNG WARNING SIGNS Change in bowel/bladder habits A sore that does not heal Unusual bleeding or discharge Thickening or lump in breast/elsewhere Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing Obvious change in wart or mole Nagging cough or hoarseness


18 TREATMENTS SURGERY: If tumors are confined most common treatment. RADIATION THERAPY: High-energy radiation to kill or damage cancer cells; side effects: fatigue, nausea, vomiting CHEMOTHERAPY: Anti-cancer drugs; can harm healthy cells; side effects: nausea, vomiting, fatigue, hair loss IMMUNOTHERAPY: Immune system is stimulated to fight cancer

19 HOW TO REDUCE YOUR RISK 1. Know the warning signs 2. Choose a tobacco free lifestyle 3. Protect yourself from the sun & avoid tanning booths 4. Follow dietary guidelines to reduce cancer risk. EAT: fruits, veggies, & foods high in fiber. 5. Maintain desirable weight & a healthful body composition. 6. Avoid drinking alcohol. 7. Avoid exposure to dangerous chemicals & airborne fibers. 8. Get PSA or Mammogram tests every year after age 40. 9. Avoid infection with HIV/STD’s. 10. Know your family’s cancer history.

20 #1 HEART DISEASE 652,091 death/yr Diseases of the heart & blood vessels. 50 million people have high blood pressure. 12.6 million people have coronary heart disease. 1.1 million heart attacks/yr - 1/2 will die

21 TYPES OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE ANGINA CHEST PAINS from narrowed coronary artery ARTERIOSCLEROSIS Hardening of the arteries PLAQUE HEART ATTACK Death of cardiac muscle caused by lack of blood flow to the heart. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE Hearts pumping ability is below normal & fluid accumulates in lungs/other parts. Caused: heart attack, birth defects, high blood pressure. CORONARY HEART DISEASE Narrowed/blocked coronary artery. RHEUMATIC FEVER Auto immune action in the heart that can cause fever, weakness, & damage to the heart. Most common in children/teens Results from untreated strep throat HYPERTENSION: High Blood Pressure

22 Plaque

23 HOW TO REDUCE RISK OF CARIDOVASCULAR DISEASES 1. Maintain a healthy blood cholesterol level - LDL/HDL 200 borderline>200 high 2. Choose a heart healthy diet. Low fat, fruits, veggies, whole grains, lean meat, poultry, fish, & antioxidants. 3. Avoid tobacco products & secondhand smoke. 4. Maintain healthful blood pressure: High BP = anything over 140/90 5. Maintain healthful body weight. 6. Participate in regular physical activity. 7. Manage stress: Being stressed causes the heart to beat more than it should, increases resting blood pressure, & cholesterol levels.



26 4 RISK FACTORS YOU CAN’T CONTROL FOR CVD AGE GENDER - Males more susceptible. RACE - Certain ethnic groups have a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases. PREDISPOSITION - Family history, if it runs in your family it might be a good idea to keep an eye out for it.

27 LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH FOR: KIDS 1.Accidents 2.Cancer 3.Congenital Anomalies 4.Homicide 5.Heart disease TEENS 1.Accidents 2.Suicide 3.Homicide 4.Congenital Anomalies 5.Cancer

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