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Chapter 3. What is Consciousness?  our awareness of internal and external stimulation.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3. What is Consciousness?  our awareness of internal and external stimulation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3

2 What is Consciousness?  our awareness of internal and external stimulation

3 How do we study consciousness?  Cognitive Neuroscience—Used many different fields of psychologists to implement technology in the study of the consciousness. Results: MRI, PET, EEG, CTMRIPETEEGCT

4 Function & Structure of Consciousness 1. Consciousness helps our brains from being overwhelmed by stimulation. 2. Consciousness is an interpretation of the world.

5 Function & Structure of Consciousness 3. Consciousness helps us make a mental record of the most meaningful elements in our lives. 4. Consciousness allows us to draw on lessons stored in memory.

6 Levels of Consciousness - Preconsciousness—Fond memories that are cued to their recall. - Subconscious— information stored into memory without being consciously attended to

7 Levels of Consciousness - The Unconscious—Desires & emotions, that if they existed at a conscious level, would cause extreme behaviors and anxiety (Freudian Theory) - Nonconscious—Information processed in the brain, but not represented in the consciousness or memory (breathing, blood pressure, etc.)

8 What are the Cycles of Everyday Consciousness?  Consciousness changes in cycles that normally correspond to our biological rhythms and to the patterns of our environment

9 Circadian Rhythms  Natural bodily pattern that repeats about every 24 hrs  Can change based on exposure to light and darkness  Jet lag can cause a disruption in our internal clock


11 Daydreaming  Mild consciousness alteration where attention shifts to memories, expectations, desires, or fantasies away from the immediate situation.

12 Daydreaming  Most people daydream every day  Young adults report the most frequent daydreams (amount declines with age)  Not as vivid as our dreams at night

13 Sleep and Dreaming

14 Sleep Cycle BRAIN POP! 1. Every 90 minutes we enter a REM period Dreaming takes place Voluntary Muscles are immobile or paralyzed which is known as sleep paralysis Sleep paralysis keeps us from acting out our dreams 2. The sleep in between is known as Non-REM Sleepwalking Sleeptalking

15 Sleep Cycle

16 3. Most people go through the cycle 4-6 times 4. REM gets longer as the sleep cycle continues 10 minutes the first cycle but up to one hour the last cycle

17 Need for Sleep  Most adults need anywhere from 6-9 hrs a night  Most adults get less sleep repeatedly creating a SLEEP DEBT

18 Function of Sleep 1) Conserve energy 2) Restore itself

19 Need for Sleep  Your need for sleep depends on different factors:  Genetic need for sleep  Hormone melatonin  Personality  Age

20 How much sleep do you need?  Answer the following questions with a “yes” or “no”.  1) Do you often get sleepy in your classes?  2) D0 you sleep late on the weekends?  3)Do you usually get sleepy when you get bored?

21 How much sleep do you need?  4) Do you often fall asleep while reading or watching tv?  5) Do you usually fall asleep while within five minutes of going to bed?  6) Do you awake in the morning feeling that you are not rested?  7) Would you oversleep if you did not use an alarm clock to get you out of bed?

22 How much sleep do you need?  If you answered “yes” to any of these questions you are shorting yourself on sleep!

23 Sleep Disorders  Insomnia  Sleep Apnea  Narcolepsy

24 Insomnia  The most common sleep disorder (1/3 of adult population!)  When people are not satisfied with the amt. of sleep they get  Symptoms: inability to fall asleep, waking up throughout the night, waking up early in the morning  Common for people occasionally but treatable with medication

25 Sleep Apnea  Involves problems in the upper respiratory tract which interferes with breathing during sleep  Result: body awakens due to a stop in breathing  SIDS (Sudden infant death syndrome) can result from this  eE eE  b7U&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode =1&safe=active b7U&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode =1&safe=active

26 Narcolepsy & Cataplexy  Sudden daytime sleep attacks without warning  Often accompanied by cataplexy- sudden loss of muscle control  Research shows that they have abnormal REM sleep cycles (sleep paralysis is mimicking cataplexy)  n0Oeo&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_ mode=1&safe=active n0Oeo&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_ mode=1&safe=active

27 Why we dream…  Some scientists think that dreams are meaningful mental events, reflect cognitive needs or important events  Other argue that dreams are the brains random activity during sleep and have no special meaning

28 Things that can alter our consciousness:  Hypnosis  Meditation  Psychoactive Drugs

29 Hypnosis  An induced altered state of awareness, characterized by deep relaxation and focused attention  Uses for Hypnosis:  Pain control  Desensitizing phobias  Addictions   ety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active ety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active

30 Meditation  Form of consciousness changed by inducing focus on a repetitive behavior, assuming certain body positions, and minimizing external stimulation  K-ek K-ek

31 Psychoactive Drugs  Chemicals that affect mental processes and behavior  Impair parts of the brain that typically help us make good decisions  Attractive because they stimulate the brains “reward circuits”  Hallucinogens  Opiates  Depressants  Stimulants

32 hallucinogens  Produce changes in consciousness by altering perception of the external environment and inner awareness  Create hallucinations and blur the boundary between self and external world  Commonly used hallucinogens:  Mescaline, psilocybin, LSD, PCP  Cannabis is classified as a hallucinogen because of the active ingredient THC  Medical uses: PCP for veterinary anesthetic, cannabis for nausea from chemo  Psychological effects: fear, anxiety, confusion, motor coordination impaired, memory loss,  Lower potential for physical dependency

33 Opiates  Derivatives of the opium poppy  Suppress physical sensation and response to stimulation  Common opiates:  Morphine, heroin, codeine  Medical uses: Morphine and Codeine used as painkiller and cough suppressant  Highly addictive!!-addiction builds and users are forced to up their dosage to satisfy craving

34 Depressants  Slow down the mental and physical activity of the body by inhibiting central nervous system activity  Impair reflexes and judgment  Common depressants:  Barbiturates (sedatives), benzodiazepines (antianxiety), alcohol  Alcohol elicits a variety of reactions ranging from being friendly to depressed.  Physical and psychological dependency often begins with binge drinking

35 stimulants  Increase central nervous system activity  Speed up both mental and physical rates of activity and enhance attention  Medically used to treat sleep disorders and ADHD  Recreational use: amphetamines and cocaine  Seek intense pleasurable sensations, increased self- confidence, greater energy and alertness and euphoria  Also experience frightening hallucinations, and paranoid delusions

36 Stimulants continued  Caffeine and nicotine  Affect heart, blood circulation, and efficiency of the brain  Both addictive

37 Yoga Expectations  Everyone should participate  No one is an expert! None of us will be good!  No negative comments  Dress Appropriately  You will have a write up afterwards about how this is connected to states of mind  If you have a mat at home- bring it! Extra Credit!!!

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