Presentation on theme: "Presented By: Dr. Mohamad Husain Ahmad Supervised By: Dr. Manal Al-Maskati."— Presentation transcript:
Presented By: Dr. Mohamad Husain Ahmad Supervised By: Dr. Manal Al-Maskati
Airway management is the most important skill for an emergency practitioner to master because failure to secure an adequate airway can quickly lead to death or disability.
Despite the existence of the guidelines, little data exist about RSI and most of the data comes from anaesthesia literature.
RSI is superior in terms of higher success rate, better intubation conditions and lower incidence of complications. Proved by: Clinical experience. randomized, controlled trials describing intubating conditions for patients intubated in the operating room have consistently reported a significantly higher frequency of excellent intubation conditions with deep sedation plus paralysis (80 to 98 percent) versus that observed with deep sedation alone (0 to 30 percent).
Stands for: R apid S equence I ntubation. R apid S equence I nduction.
The process of administering a sedative and muscle relaxant to induce a state of unconsciousness and complete neuromuscular paralysis to facilitate the process of endotracheal intubation.
To take: An awake patient. With assumed full stomach. Very quickly induce a state of unconsciousness and paralysis and securing the airway. Without using positive pressure ventilation as much as possible.
Decreases the stimulation of potentially harmful autonomic reflexes ass e intubation: E.g elevated intracranial pressure, HTN & brady. Controls the clinical environment: In case of anxious, frightened or uncooperative. Minimizes the risk of pulmonary aspiration: If done along with cricoid pressure.
Provides better intubation conditions: Complete jaw relaxation, open and immobile vocal cords, and no coughing, bucking or diaphragmatic movement in response to intubation. Minimizes the psychic trauma: Cuz the p.t will be unconscious.
Indicated for almost all the patients undergoing emergent endotracheal intubation.
Total upper airway obstruction (requires surgical airway) Total loss of facial/oropharyngeal landmarks (requires surgical airway)
In patients e H/O or F/H/O allergy to anesthetic agents. In patients known to have a difficult airway: Cuz the patient will be irreversibly paralyzed for few minutes after administering the NMB agent.
Although not contraindicated, it is unnecessary and time wasting in unconscious patients.
In the majority of situations, RSI, from the decision to intubate to successful intubation, is accomplished in 10 minutes
Preparation of equipment: Best remembered by the mnemonic (SOAP-ME): ▪ S: Suction. ▪ O: Oxygen. ▪ A: Airway equipments. ▪ P: Pharmacology agents. ▪ ME:Monitoring Equipment.
Equipments: ▪ Available. ▪ Proper size. ▪ Functioning. Assess for the possibility of difficult intubation or bag- mask ventilation. Decide which sedative and paralytic agents you will use: ▪ Dose. ▪ Keep them ready and drawn in syringes. ▪ IV access (preferable 2).
Rapid review includes: Rapid and specific history taking. Rapid and specific physical examination.
Purpose: Identify or current conditions that may adversly affected by medications or airway manipulation (NM diseases, cardiovascular compromise, increased ICP or bronchospasm). Clinical features that may make laryngoscopy and/or tracheal inubation difficult. Coditions that may interfere with bag mask ventilation.
History: Allergies to medications. History or F.history of malignant hyperthermia. History of asthma. Previous intubations. Siezure disorders. Noisy breathing suggestive of upper airway obstruction.
Physical examination: Clinical features suggestive of NM disorders. Increased ICP. Bronchospasm. Cardiovascular compromise: ▪ Unexplained tachcardia, poor peripheral perfusion, and hypotension.
Benefit: To establish a reservoir of oxygen within the lungs, as well as an oxygen surplus throughout the body. So the patient can then tolerate several minutes of apnea without oxygen desaturation, allowing intubation to be safely performed without bag-mask ventilation.
Ways: Hypoxic, in respiratory failure, or have insufficient respiratory reserve to achieve adequate preoxygenation with spontaneous respirations: ▪ careful bag-mask ventilation with small tidal volumes (while maintaining cricoid pressure) should be performed for several minutes to achieve adequate preoxygenation. Breathing spontaneously: ▪ nonrebreather mask for a minimum of three minutes.
Oxygen concentration used: The highest concentration available.
Agents: Atropine. Lidocaine.
Atropine: Indicated in p.ts receiving ketamine to reduce the risk of excessive secretions. Indicated in p.ts at risk of developing bradycardia: ▪ Children < 1yr. ▪ Children < 5 yrs receiving succinylcholine. ▪ Children receiving a second dose of succinylcholine. Timimg: ▪ 1-2 min prior to inubation.
Dose: ▪ 0.02 mg/kg IV (max 1 mg & min 0.1 mg too small doses can cause paradoxical bradycardia).
Disadvantages: ▪ In too small doses can cause paradoxical bradycardia. ▪ The effect of atropine on heart rate may persist for several hours and prevent the bradycardic response to hypoxemia. ▪ Dilates the pupils, thus interfering with pupillary response to light as a means to evaluate a change in neurologic status once the patient is paralyzed.
Lidocaine: Indicated in all p.ts to reduce the risk of increase in ICP associated with laryngoscopy and intubation (vagal nerve stimulation). Timing: ▪ 2-5 min prior to intubation. Dose: ▪ 1.5 mg/kg IV (max 100 mg)
Controversies: Although widely used, there are no studies that assess the efficacy of lidocaine to improve neurologic outcome in patients undergoing RSI in acute brain traumatic injury.
In systematic review of studies of adult patients, Robinson et al, it showed conflicting results on the ability of lidocaine to blunt the increase in ICP in patients who were being intubated or undergoing endotrachial suctioning.
Groups of patients going for RSI can be divided into: Head trauma without shock. Shock. Asthmatic. Non of the above.
Criteria to choose the sedative agent: Availability. Institutional policy. Familiarity. Clinical advantages/disadvantages with respect to the clinical requirements of the patients.
Onset of action: < 1 min. Duration: min. Intubation conditions: 75% success rate. 1 st most common agent used in united states cuz it is hemodynamically neutral.
CNS: Pros: lowers ICP, protective against generalized siezure activity. Cons: lowers the threshold for convulsion in p.ts with focal siezure disorders. CVS: Pros: hemodynamically neutral.
Adrenals: Effect: ▪ Increase the risk of adrenal suppression leading to decrease in cortisol level (one prospective randomized controlled study of 31 adults compared etimodate and midazolam specifically to assess for adrenal function. It showed that although there was significant decrease in adrenal function in the 1 st 4hr in etimodate group, there was no diffrence at 12 or 24hr and measured cortisol levels remained within normal ranges).
Significance: ▪ Not to be used in cases of sepsis or in patients known to have adrenal insufficiency. If there is no alternative: ▪ Give a single dose of corticosteroids.
Preferred in: As a 1 st choice unless contraindicated. Better avoid in: Focal siezure disorders. Adrenal insufficiency. Severe sepsis.
Onset of action: s. Duration: min. Intubation conditions: % success rate (better than etimodate). The best success rate of 1 st attempt in RSI. 2 nd most common agent used in united states.
Preferred in: Cases of ICP without hypotension. Cases in which etimodate is contraindicated or not available and patient is hemodynamically stable. Better avoid in: Hemodynamically unstable patients. Bronchial asthma patients.
Onset of action: 1-2 min. Duration: min.
CNS: Pros: anticonvulsant properties. CVS: Cons: hypotension. Chest: Cons: causes respiratory depression, so p.ts may develop apnea before receiving the paralytic agent which interferes with the effectiveness of pre-oxygenation.
Onset of action: 10 s. Duration: m.
CNS: Pros: anticoncvulsant properties, lowers ICP. CVS: Cons: hypotension (vasodilatation and bradycardia). Other: It contains egg lecithen, egg yolk phospholipids and soybean oil.
No ideal sedative exists for every RSI situation. Etomidate or thiopental for the uncomplicated patient undergoing RSI.
Hypotension: Etimodate or ketamine (especially in septic shock). Increased ICP: Any agent but thiopental and midazolam are not preferred cuz they decrease the mean arterial pressure leading to decrease in cerebral perfusion pressure.
Hypotension with head injury: Etimodate or ketamine. Status asthmaticus: Ketamine or etimodate. Status epilepticus: Thiopental, midazolam or etimodate (especially if hemodynamically unstable).
Onset of action: 30-60s Duration: 3-8 min. 1 st most commonly used paralytic agent cuz of its rapid onset of action and short duration of paralysis.
Action: Mimics the effect of acetylcholine at the nicotinic cholinergic receptor, causing continuous depolarization of the muscle membrane. This inhibits repolarization, resulting in paralysis.
Bradycardia: Patients at risk: ▪ Children < 5 yrs receiving succinylcholine. ▪ Children receiving a second dose of succinylcholine. Recommendation: ▪ Pre-treating with atropine.
Malignant hyperthermia can be triggered by succinylcholine. Elevated ICP and IOP: Recommendation: ▪ Pre-treat with lidocane.
Hyperkalemia: Patients at risk: ▪ Myopathies (such as Duchenne or Becker’s dystrophy). Succinylcholine interacts with the unstable muscle membrane causing rhabdomyolysis and rapid increase in serum potassium.
Conditions resulting in up-regulation of skeletal muscle acetylcholine receptors (such as motor neuron lesions, muscle injury, muscle disuse, or muscle atrophy) → exaggerated efflux of potassium from the muscle occurs after depolarization. The increase in number of receptors usually occurs within 2-3 days following an injury.
Recommendation: ▪ To minimize the hyperkalemia it is recommended to give a defasciculating dose of a non-depolarizing agent 2 min before the administration of succinylcholine. ▪ In a small randomized controlled study, 45 children, 3–15 years old, were pretreated with either saline or a nondepolarizing paralytic agent, and then treated with succinylcholine. While there was no difference in the amount of fasciculations, the rise in serum potassium levels was significantly less when pretreated with a nondepolarizing agent (0.45 mmol/L for saline group vs. 0.0 for nondepolarizing agent group).
Relative contraindications: Increased IOP or ICP. Patients with pseudocholinestrase deficiency (risk of prolonged duration).
Mode of action: Induces muscle paralysis by competitive antagonism at the nicotinic cholinergic receptor.
Onset of action: 1-3 min. Duration: min. The best alternative to succinylcholine cuz of its rapid onset of action and shorter duration of action when compared with the other non- depolarizing agents.
Rocuronium v.s succinylcholine: Some clinicians prefer the disadvantage of rocuronium longer duration of action to the small but fatal risk of using succinylcholine. Succinylcholine provides better intubating conditions than rocuronium. This can be compensated by giving higher doses of rocuronium but unfortunately, it is associated with longer duration of paralysis.
When: Once the child is apneic and the jaw can be easily opened (proper muscle relaxation).
Confirmation of proper position: Visualizing the ETT passing through the vocal cords. Yellow color change in CO2 detector (the color might change even with esophageal intubation cuz of hyperinflation of the stomach when BMV is needed. The color might not change in case of prolonged cardiac arrest).
Good wave form on the carbonograph (ETCO2 monitor). Auscultation over the lungs and stomach. Improvement in patient vital signs.
Secure the ETT in position. Initiate mechanical ventilation. Chest radiograph. Administer appropriate analgesia and sedation for patient comfort.
Adverse physiologic reactions (hypotension, bradycardia or increase ICP) secondary to vagal stimulation induced by direct laryngoscopy. Failure of intubation in a patient who cannot be ventilated (the so called cannot intubate/cannot ventilate situation). A rescue airway techniques must be done.
Side effects from the pharmacological agents. Esophageal intubation. Barotrauma (due to administration of excessive tidal volume) causing pneumothorax. Mechanical trauma to the oral cavity and larynx during insertion or manipulation of the ETT or laryngoscope.
Aspiration pneumonitis: Usually patient comes with full stomach. Sometimes cricoid pressure must be relieved and BMV must be initiated giving more chance for air to enter stomach and causes reflux.
Benefit: Occlude the esophageal lumen, which reduces the risk of passive regurgitation, which reduces the risk of aspiration. When to apply: Once the sedative and paralytic agents are administered until the endotracheal intubation is confirmed.
Risks (remove once you have one of the following): Difficulty viewing the larynx during intubation. Airway obstruction when ventilation is required. Movement of the cervical spine in patients with unstable fractures. Esophageal injury in patients who are actively vomiting.
Can be assessed by the following methods (LEMON): L: Look externally. E: Evaluate the rule. M: Mallampati classification. O: Obstruction. N: Neck mobility.
Look externally for difficulty in the following: Positioning: ▪ Prominent or misshapen occiput, short neck or poor neck mobility. Bag mask ventilation: ▪ Facial anomalies, facial trauma (including burns).
Laryngoscopy: ▪ Small mouth, small mandible, abnormal palate, large tongue. Intubation: ▪ Signs of upper airway obstruction (hoarseness, stridor, drooling).
Evaluate rule: 3: patient is able to insert 3 of his or her own fingers between his teeth. 3: can accommodate 3 of his her own fingers breadth between his or her hyoid bone and the mentum. 2: can accommodate 2 of his her own fingers between his or her hyoid bone and the thyroid cartilage.
Obstruction look for 3 signs: Drooling (inability to swallow secretions). Stridor. Hoarsness. Neck mobility: Inability to move the neck makes it a difficult airway.