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Ancient History Through Medieval Times (Part 1).  Medical History- Overview  Health Care Providers were: Priests Medicine Men  Many Ailments came from:

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient History Through Medieval Times (Part 1).  Medical History- Overview  Health Care Providers were: Priests Medicine Men  Many Ailments came from:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient History Through Medieval Times (Part 1)

2  Medical History- Overview  Health Care Providers were: Priests Medicine Men  Many Ailments came from: Poor Sanitation Unsanitary Water Supply Lack of Knowledge  It was believed that: Evil Spirits and Demons caused disease.  Of Scientific Interest: Microorganisms

3  Ancient History  80% of People died by the age of 30 Hunting Accidents Violence  Treatments Rituals “Wives Tales” Trephining Cutting of a hole in the skull with a flint knife. Treatment for Migraines, Epilepsy, Paralysis, Insanity Treatment for Head injuries too.

4  Medical treatments began around 3000 B.C.  “Black Magic”  Medicinal Plants 1/3 of which we still use today  It was believed that our blood flowed through canals Leaches used to clear the canals. We still used this therapy today. Leaches secrete Hirudin (prevents coagulation)

5  Egyptian God of Medicine Imhotep Egyptian physician for the royal family. Wrote the Sacred Books If the physician followed them but the patient died, it was okay – nothing happened to the physician. If the physician did not follow them and the patient died, the physician was executed.  Father of Chinese Medicine Wrote the Great Herbal Document that contained thousands of drugs. Originally used to drive out demons. Acupuncture – 365 spots on the body.

6  Ancient History  80% of people died by the age of 30 Why? Hunting accidents Violence

7  Treatments Rituals “Wives Tales” Trephining Cutting a hole in the skull with a flint knife  Treatment of migraines, epilepsy, paralysis or insanity  Then treatment for head injuries Sometimes skulls showed healing and many years of survival

8  Medical treatments began around 3000 B.C. (Egyptian tombs show evidence) Sometimes rituals Then repellents to fight demons “Black Magic” excretions, insects Medicinal plants (1/3 of what is used today)

9 Blood flowed through canals Clear the canals with leaches (still used today as therapy)  HIRUDIN (substance excreted by leech that prevents coagulation)

10 Egyptian God of Medicine Imhotep, Egyptian physican for the royal family Adhere to the rules of the Sacred Books  If patient dies, no blame on the physician  No adherence and patient dies, physician is executed

11 Father of Chinese Medicine Great Herbal (document containing thousands of drugs)  Originally used to drive out demons Acupuncture (365 spots on body)

12 Babylon Established a legal code  Set fees for services  Rules of conduct  Loss of life or eyesight, physician lost his hands Only applied to Nobility Slaves just replaced

13 Greeks Apollo (The Sun God) taught medicine to a centaur who taught others like Asklepios (Greek God of Healing) Massage, bathing and exercise Drug induced sleep Cleaning of wounds with large, nonpoisonous snakes God Asklepios would apply salves  Caduceus (medical symbol) derived from this God holding a staff with a serpent coiled around it

14 Hindu priest-doctors contributed surgery Anesthesia Cataract and plastic surgery

15 Greeks Dissected animals (Alcmaeon)  Human dissection was illegal Blood gave life and heart distributed it (Empedocles) Hippocrates moved medicine from priests to philosophers  Organized method of gaining knowledge (Observation)  Hippocratic Oath (To do no harm) Aristotle (tutor of Alexander the Great)  Brought together medicine, biology, botany and anatomy (based on animal dissection)

16 Egypt Human dissection was legal 70,000 books, home of a famous medical school With rise of the Roman Empire, this declined and back to supernatural/spiritual medicine went.

17 Romans distrusted and despised the wandering Greek physicians  Greek Physicians were slaves (till 200 BC)

18 Julius Caesar (Roman) gave physicians citizenship rights Physicians began to achieve status

19 Claudius Galen – Physician from Asia Minor Treated Gladiators (with little medical training) Believed the body was composed of humors  Four fluids (blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile)  Used diet, massage, exercise and drugs Was kicked out of Rome then returned and cured the emperor’s stomachache. Produced 500 books, claimed to have authority of Hippocrates  Accepted for 1300 years (unchallenged till 16 th century)  Set back medical progress

20  Romans made little contribution to medicine Realized disease was connected to filth and overcrowding Drained marshes Laws for clean streets Aqueducts for clean drinking water Private hospital system Diseases (Malaria, small pox) drainage system no longer used to keep marshes down Pandemic Bubonic plague

21  Anglo-Saxon settlers Illness caused by “nine venoms, the nine diseases, or nine worms, or nine elves and witches”

22  5 th – 16 th centuries No progress in medical knowledge or practice Pagan magic, superstition and herbalism

23  6 th – 10 th centuries Epidemics Smallpox, dysentery, typhus, plague, widespread famine.

24  Christian Church and Arab scholars Illness was a punishment Priests again healers Exorcism and holy relics

25  Arab physicians in 1000 AD Contributed to pharmacology because of knowledge of chemistry

26  Rhazes the Arab Hippocrates 150 books (one weighing 22 pounds) observation of disease distinguished between smallpox and measles cautery (hot iron)

27  Medical school in Salerno, Italy around 850 AD Union of medical knowledge from the East and the West First school where students took exams Issuance of degrees Anatomy and surgery (based on animal dissection) Other medical schools followed (Paris, Oxford and Cambridge)

28  Medieval European surgeons (barber-surgeons) Limited to nobility, wealthy Cut hair, bloodletting, opened abscesses, amputations (same razor) Trademark White poles wrapped with blood-stained bandages (Barber pole today)

29  Lots of disease from famine, population movement and uncleanliness Most famous diseases:

30 Leprosy  Contagious  Thought to be a result of the sins against God  Forbid to marry  Wear a black cloak with white patches

31 Bubonic Plague  Thought to be spread by rats, was actually a bacteria that grew in fleas on the rats  Shivering, headache, vomiting, pain  Large painful boils  Died within five days


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