Damages to the Reflex Arc & Spinal Cord Injuries _______, __________ or ______ reflex responses indicate problems with portions of the _______ __________. Reflex testing helps determine __________ of injury in _______ or ______________
Spinal Nerves ____ Pairs of spinal nerves with ____ different categories 1.__________ nerves connect to the shoulders, arms, hands and diaphragm. 2.___________ nerves to chest and abdomen 3.____________ nerves to the lower back and parts of the leg 4.____________ to the buttocks, genitals and most areas of the legs and feet
Spinal Cord Injuries Complete Vs. Partial Transection Injury can be due to _______ or ________ Nerves ________ the injury site may still functions properly but ____ those below What injury may be worst a C6 or T8?
How does this impact Athletics? Head and Neck Injuries in Sport (1960-1999 in the U.S.) SportLevelDeathsPermanent Injury Serious Injury Football High School College 61 5 147 21 166 62 Hockey High School College 2020 4444 5353 Wrestling High School College 2020 20 1 11 2 Cheerleading High School College 1111 7575 10 Track & Field High School College 16 2 1212 13 3 Gymnastics High School College 1010 7575 4141 Source: National Center For Catastrophic Sports Injury Research, Journal of the American Medical Association.
Facts and Causes Facts On average, 80% of newly injured are male Majority are preventable, involved alcohol, poor decisions 12 – 5 am is most popular time of day Costs in Ontario exceed 1 million dollars per year 50:50 paraplegic / quadriplegic Causes Car Accidents ______% Falls ______% Sports ______% Others (including gunshots, industrial accidents) ______%
Prevalence of Paralysis According to a study initiated by the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation: There are nearly ____ in ____ people living with paralysis: approximately ________ people That's the same number of people as the combined populations of Los Angeles, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.
Cost of Paralysis… Average yearly expenses can range from $228,566 to $775,567 in the _________. Estimated lifetime costs due to spinal cord injury can range from $681,843 to over $3 million for a _________. 87.9% of all spinal cord injured individuals are discharged from hospitals to private homes Source: University of Alabama National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Rehabilitation Extensive _____________, occupational therapy, ___________, counseling Maintain _____________________________ ________________________ and retraining _____________________ (transfers) Try to enhance functions of limbs
Famous Spinal Cord Injuries Franklin D. Roosevelt (Paraplegic) President of the U.S.A. Rick Hanson (Paraplegic) Canadian Paralympian Stephan Hawking (Quadriplegic) Physicist – Lateral Sclerosis Christopher Reeves (Quadriplegic) Superman – Equestrian Accident Mike Utley (Quadriplegic) NFL Lineman Mark Zupan (Paraplegic) Wheelchair Rugby – Auto Accident (Murderball)Murderball
INJURIES, DISEASES AND DISORDERS INVOLVING THE BRAIN
Cerebellar Damage Damage to the cerebellum (mini brain) Muscles acting on joints that normally move together become jerky Difficulty carrying out movements and tremors with movements __________________________________
Basal Ganglia Basal Ganglia is important for _______ ______________ Signs and Symptoms: Sudden twitching Slower movement Increased muscle tone Violent flailing movement Rigidity Tremors Damage can cause: __________________________________
Common Nerve Disorders and Diseases 1._______________ (CP) 2.___________________ 3.______________ (MS) 4.___________________ __________ (ALS) 5.___________________
Cerebral Palsy ________________ neurologic disease ______________ are damaged Results from a __________ early in life (ie. Hypoxia, Birth Complications) Type depends on _______ the brain is injured Symptoms of CP Visual defects Seizures Psychological problems Hearing defects Other sensory loss Intellectual impairments
Epilepsy A disorder in which groups of ____________ ___________ signals Symptoms: Abnormal sensations, emotions and behaviour __________________________ Loss of consciousness Treatment _________ cure ________ and surgical techniques can control seizures
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) A disease of the ______ that disrupts _________ between the ______ and other parts of the body Symptoms ________ problems ________ weakness Impaired _______________ Numbness in extremities Paralysis (advanced MS). Treatment ______ cure Medication and steroids can help _______________ symptoms.
ALS: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Aka Lou Gehrig’s Disease A _________ progressing, _______ disease that attacks the _______ _______ that control ___________ muscles Symptoms: __________ or cramping in one area of the body (especially hands or feet) Followed by ______ of voluntary _________ ___________ in that area Later __________ to all other regions of the ___________. Treatment: ___________ and __________ (2-5 years from diagnosis) _______ standard course of treatment
Parkinson’s Disease A progressive ___________________ disorder that can cause minor tremors or severe disability. Symptoms Trembling in _______, _______, legs, jaw and ________ Stiffness of limbs and trunk _____________ or movement Difficulty ____________________ and ______________. Treatment _______ cure Meds such as “levodopa” and “carbidopa” provide relief from symptoms.