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NERVOUS SYSTEM: INJURIES, DISEASES, DISORDERS. Damages to the Reflex Arc & Spinal Cord Injuries  _______, __________ or ______ reflex responses indicate.

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Presentation on theme: "NERVOUS SYSTEM: INJURIES, DISEASES, DISORDERS. Damages to the Reflex Arc & Spinal Cord Injuries  _______, __________ or ______ reflex responses indicate."— Presentation transcript:

1 NERVOUS SYSTEM: INJURIES, DISEASES, DISORDERS

2 Damages to the Reflex Arc & Spinal Cord Injuries  _______, __________ or ______ reflex responses indicate problems with portions of the _______ __________.  Reflex testing helps determine __________ of injury in _______ or ______________

3 Spinal Nerves ____ Pairs of spinal nerves with ____ different categories 1.__________ nerves connect to the shoulders, arms, hands and diaphragm. 2.___________ nerves to chest and abdomen 3.____________ nerves to the lower back and parts of the leg 4.____________ to the buttocks, genitals and most areas of the legs and feet

4 Spinal Cord Injuries  Complete Vs. Partial Transection  Injury can be due to _______ or ________  Nerves ________ the injury site may still functions properly but ____ those below  What injury may be worst a C6 or T8?

5 Quadriplegia & Paraplegia Quadriplegia  _______________ Paraplegia  _______________

6 How does this impact Athletics? Head and Neck Injuries in Sport ( in the U.S.) SportLevelDeathsPermanent Injury Serious Injury Football High School College Hockey High School College Wrestling High School College Cheerleading High School College Track & Field High School College Gymnastics High School College Source: National Center For Catastrophic Sports Injury Research, Journal of the American Medical Association.

7 Facts and Causes Facts  On average, 80% of newly injured are male  Majority are preventable, involved alcohol, poor decisions  12 – 5 am is most popular time of day  Costs in Ontario exceed 1 million dollars per year  50:50 paraplegic / quadriplegic Causes  Car Accidents ______%  Falls ______%  Sports ______%  Others (including gunshots, industrial accidents) ______%

8 Causes of SCI & Paralysis (continued…)

9 Prevalence of Paralysis According to a study initiated by the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation: There are nearly ____ in ____ people living with paralysis: approximately ________ people That's the same number of people as the combined populations of Los Angeles, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.

10 Cost of Paralysis… Average yearly expenses can range from $228,566 to $775,567 in the _________. Estimated lifetime costs due to spinal cord injury can range from $681,843 to over $3 million for a _________. 87.9% of all spinal cord injured individuals are discharged from hospitals to private homes Source: University of Alabama National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

11 Rehabilitation Extensive _____________, occupational therapy, ___________, counseling Maintain _____________________________ ________________________ and retraining _____________________ (transfers) Try to enhance functions of limbs

12 Famous Spinal Cord Injuries  Franklin D. Roosevelt (Paraplegic)  President of the U.S.A.  Rick Hanson (Paraplegic)  Canadian Paralympian  Stephan Hawking (Quadriplegic)  Physicist – Lateral Sclerosis  Christopher Reeves (Quadriplegic)  Superman – Equestrian Accident  Mike Utley (Quadriplegic)  NFL Lineman  Mark Zupan (Paraplegic)  Wheelchair Rugby – Auto Accident (Murderball)Murderball

13 INJURIES, DISEASES AND DISORDERS INVOLVING THE BRAIN

14 Cerebellar Damage  Damage to the cerebellum (mini brain)  Muscles acting on joints that normally move together become jerky  Difficulty carrying out movements and tremors with movements  __________________________________

15 Basal Ganglia Basal Ganglia is important for _______ ______________  Signs and Symptoms:  Sudden twitching  Slower movement  Increased muscle tone  Violent flailing movement  Rigidity  Tremors  Damage can cause:  __________________________________

16 Common Nerve Disorders and Diseases 1._______________ (CP) 2.___________________ 3.______________ (MS) 4.___________________ __________ (ALS) 5.___________________

17 Cerebral Palsy  ________________ neurologic disease  ______________ are damaged  Results from a __________ early in life (ie. Hypoxia, Birth Complications)  Type depends on _______ the brain is injured  Symptoms of CP  Visual defects  Seizures  Psychological problems  Hearing defects  Other sensory loss  Intellectual impairments

18 Epilepsy A disorder in which groups of ____________ ___________ signals Symptoms:  Abnormal sensations, emotions and behaviour  __________________________  Loss of consciousness Treatment  _________ cure  ________ and surgical techniques can control seizures

19 Multiple Sclerosis (MS) A disease of the ______ that disrupts _________ between the ______ and other parts of the body Symptoms  ________ problems  ________ weakness  Impaired _______________  Numbness in extremities  Paralysis (advanced MS). Treatment  ______ cure  Medication and steroids can help _______________ symptoms.

20 ALS: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Aka Lou Gehrig’s Disease A _________ progressing, _______ disease that attacks the _______ _______ that control ___________ muscles Symptoms:  __________ or cramping in one area of the body (especially hands or feet)  Followed by ______ of voluntary _________ ___________ in that area  Later __________ to all other regions of the ___________. Treatment:  ___________ and __________ (2-5 years from diagnosis)  _______ standard course of treatment

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22 Parkinson’s Disease A progressive ___________________ disorder that can cause minor tremors or severe disability. Symptoms  Trembling in _______, _______, legs, jaw and ________  Stiffness of limbs and trunk  _____________ or movement  Difficulty ____________________ and ______________. Treatment  _______ cure  Meds such as “levodopa” and “carbidopa” provide relief from symptoms.


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