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Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Unit 43 Nervous System.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Unit 43 Nervous System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Unit 43 Nervous System

2 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Objectives Spell and define terms. State the location and functions of the organs of the nervous system. List five diagnostic tests used to determine conditions of the nervous system.

3 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Objectives Describe fifteen common conditions of the nervous system. Describe nursing assistant actions related to the care of patients with conditions of the nervous system.

4 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Objectives Explain the proper care, handling, and insertion of an artificial eye. Explain the proper care, handling, and insertion of a hearing aid.

5 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Structure and Function Nervous system –Controls and coordinates all body activities, including the production of hormones Special parts of the nervous system –Concerned with maintaining normal day-to- day functions

6 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Structure and Function Other parts act during emergency situations Still others control voluntary activities

7 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Structure and Function Neurological conditions require highly specialized nursing care –You will assist with the less technical aspects of this care

8 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Common Conditions Nervous system usually remains healthy Injury or disease to the brain, spinal cord, or nerves requires appropriate treatment

9 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Cerebrovascular Accident Cerebrovascular accident (CVA, stroke) Occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted –Usually as a result of a blood clot blocking a vessel –Rupture of a blood vessel –Spilling blood into the brain

10 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Cerebrovascular Accident Hemiparesis (weakness) Hemiplegia (paralysis) –Develop on the opposite side from the area of the brain where the stroke occurred

11 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Cerebrovascular Accident You will notice a difference when comparing both sides of the body –From head to foot Refer to Figure A and Figure B

12 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Cerebrovascular Accident

13 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Cerebrovascular Accident Cerebrovascular accident –Leading cause of disability in the U.S. Getting rapid treatment is essential –This prevents further damage to the brain

14 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Cerebrovascular Accident About 80 percent of strokes are ischemic –A clot blocks a blood vessel About 15 percent are bleeding (hemorrhagic) –A vessel ruptures

15 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Transient Ischemic Attack A transient ischemic attack (TIA) –Temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain –Usually lasts 2 to 15 minutes May last as long as 24 hours

16 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Transient Ischemic Attack Signs and symptoms are similar to those of strokes –Patient usually makes a complete recovery –Patient is at risk for stroke in the future –ABCD Stroke Scale helps predict stroke risk

17 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. ABCD Stroke Scale FactorScore Age over 601 Elevated blood pressure1 Weakness on one side of body and speech difficulty 2 Weakness on one side of body only 1 (Continues)

18 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. ABCD Stroke Scale No symptoms0 Duration more than 60 minutes 2 Duration 10 to 59 minutes 1 Duration less than 10 minutes 0 Total______________ (Continues)

19 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. ABCD Stroke Scale Risk of stroke within seven days of a TIA: ScoreRisk % 4 1.1% 512.1% % (Rothwell PM, Giles MF, Flossmann E, et al. A simple score (ABCD) to identify individuals at high early risk of stroke after transient ischemic attack. Lancet. 2005;366:29 ‑ 36.)

20 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Paralysis Many neurologic conditions cause paralysis –Usually caused by a spinal cord injury in which sensation and function are lost or impaired below the level of injury.

21 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Paralysis Lesion –Alteration or change in tissue –Damage to the spinal cord

22 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Paralysis Terms used to describe paralysis are : –Diplegia Paralysis affecting the same region on both sides of the body (such as both arms) –Hemiplegia Paralysis on one entire side of the body (such as the arm and leg)

23 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Paralysis Terms used to describe paralysis are : –Monoplegia Paralysis affecting one limb only –Paraplegia Paralysis of the trunk (usually below the waist) and both legs

24 Copyright © 2008 Delmar Learning. All rights reserved. Paralysis Terms used to describe paralysis are: –Quadriplegia Paralysis of the trunk (usually below the neck), both arms, and both legs –Tetraplegia Another term for quadriplegia Use of this word is encouraged, instead of using quadriplegia


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