Any age Any age Ascending, symmetric (9% with asymmetry) Ascending, symmetric (9% with asymmetry) 7% children with relapse 7% children with relapse Guillain-Barr é syndrome: is an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy characterized by progressive muscle weakness and areflexia 5
Polio virus Genus: Enterovirus Family: Picornaviridae Three major antigenic sites (surface proteins (VP1- 3) Three serotypes (1, 2, and 3)
What is Poliomyelitis? Polio= gray matter Myelitis= inflammation of the spinal cord This disease result in the destruction of motor neurons caused by the poliovirus.
Infectivity Poliovirus has been isolated from stool more than two weeks before paralysis and 3-6 wks after the onset of paralysis Excretion in some patients may occur for up to 2 months
Duration of Fecal Excretion of Wild Polioviruses P O L I O 20 Viral excretion drops significantly after 14 days, but poliovirus may still be detected up to 60 days after onset. Early Detection Late Detection
13 Reservoir Poliovirus infects only human beings and there is no animal reservoir. The virus does not survive long in the environment outside the human body. There is no long-term carrier state. Environment Time for virus infectivity to fall by 90% 1. Soil Summer1.5 days Winter20 days 2. Sewage At 23 o C26 days At 2 o C180 days 3.Surface water Fresh5.5 days Sea2.5 days
Receptors Wild Poliovirus A child with no intestinal Immunity has free Receptors for WPV and help replicating Wild Poliovirus
16 DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF POLIO 1. Asymmetric flaccid paralysis (usually affecting proximally) 2. Fever at onset (high, always present at onset, gone the following day) 3.Rapid progression of paralysis 4.Residual weakness after 60 days 5.Preservation of sensory nerve function
The disease of poliomyelitis has a long history. The first example may even have been more than 3000 years ago. An Egyptian stele dating from the 18th Egyptian dynasty (1580 - 1350 BCE) shows a priest with a deformity of his leg characteristic of the flaccid paralysis typical of poliomyelitis..
Polio Eradication WHO strategies: - routine immunization -national immunization days -surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis -mopping up of immunization
Global situation At the time of adoption of polio eradication target (1988) 350,000 polio cases every year 125 countries endemic for polio. In 2011 650 cases (i.e.> 99% reduction) Only 4 endemic countries (Nigeria, India, Pakistan & Afghanistan) 10 re-infected countries In 2012 222 cases (i.e.> 99.5% reduction) Only 3 endemic countries (Nigeria, Pakistan & Afghanistan). In 2013 up to date 2 cases from Pakistan Only 3 endemic countries (Nigeria, Pakistan & Afghanistan)
Polio situation in Yemen Last case of WPV in Yemen was in April 2006 from Ibb Governorate, Hubish district. 20
350 000 cases / 125 countries Poliomyelitis in 1988
Stool Collection 2 Stool specimens 24-48 hrs. apart Within 14 days of onset of paralysis Can be done up to 2 months from onset At least 8 gm. Each Special container must be used Side of the container to be labeled with Name & EPID No. “ Reverse Cold Chain ” to be maintained
60th Day FU Examination Done on 60 th day from onset Must be done < 70 days from onset Type of paralysis is verified (Flaccid or Spastic) Presence or absence of Residual weakness
If the diagnosis has been settled, Why to notify about AFP case? Please, do not hesitate to notify about any AFP case whatever the diagnosis is. AFP case investigation does not interfere with your line of management for the case.
Hot Cases AFP Cases with symptoms typical of polio Fever at onset, short progression, Asymmetric paralysis, sensation intact… and any of the following: Under 3 years + Incomplete immunization Belonging to High risk group History of travel or contact with persons from polio-endemic countries
Virological AFP Case Classification Scheme (non-polio AFP rate > 2/100.000, >= 80% with adequate specimens) : discard polio- compatible expert review Wild poliovirus No wild poliovirus inadequate specimens no residual weakness discard two adequate specimens discard confirm residual weakness, died or lost to follow- up AFP case
Case investigation & specimen collection < 14 days of onset The Process of AFP surveillance Onset of Paralysis Case classification (< 90 days of paralysis onset) Detection & notification < 7 days of onset Follow up examination > 60 days of onset Specimens arrive at National laboratory < 3 days of being sent < 28 days of receipt Primary culture results reported to EPI Isolates sent to regional lab results reported to EPI < 28 days of receipt