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Do Now: If you were to touch a hot stove, how does the message travel from your hand to your brain?

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Presentation on theme: "Do Now: If you were to touch a hot stove, how does the message travel from your hand to your brain?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Do Now: If you were to touch a hot stove, how does the message travel from your hand to your brain?

2 Objectives:  Label the parts of the nervous system  Explain how the nervous system functions  Identify problems within the nervous system  Recall how to care for the nervous system

3  Job: Carries messages to and from the brain, spinal cord, and all other parts of the body  Tells the body how to respond to its environment.  Divided into two parts:  Central Nervous System  Peripheral Nervous System

4  Central Nervous System:  Made up of the brain and spinal cord. ▪ Brain: center for thinking ▪ Spinal cord: Thick band of nerve cells that runs through the backbone.  Peripheral Nervous System:  Made up of all the nerves that branch out from the spinal cord to the muscles, skin, internal organs, and glands. ▪ 12 Nerves branch out from the brain ▪ 31 branch out from the spinal cord

5 1. The brain receives sensory messages, interprets them, and sends responses. 2. 12 pairs of Cranial Nerves connect directly to the brain. They control the senses and then muscles in the head and neck.

6 3. The Spinal Cord is made up of highly organized nerve tissue. 4. Spinal nerves branch off from the spinal cord and connect the brain and the spinal cord with specific muscles and organs.

7  Neurons are a single nerve cell.  Sensory neurons carry messages from sense organs to the spinal cord and brain.  Motor neurons carry messages from the brain and spinal cord and tell your muscles and glands what to do.


9 Brings information to the cell body Takes information away from the cell body Synapse – area between nerve cells

10 Men’s brains, on average, are smaller than women’s. 1. True 2. False

11 Approximately how many women who live to at least 55 will go on to develop Alzheimer’s disease, a disorder that causes severe memory loss? 1. 1 in 6 2. 1 in 12 3. 1 in 24 4. 1 in 48 10 0 of 30

12 True or False? We use only 10 percent of our brains. 1. True 2. False 0 of 30 10

13 A person unable to recognize the melody for the song “Happy Birthday” is most likely suffering from which of the following conditions? 1. Aphasia 2. Amusia 3. Lyssavirus 4. Munchausen Syndrome 0 of 30 10

14 Which of the following is a gene thought to play an important role in brain development? 1. Sonic Hedgehog 2. Snoopy 3. Mario 4. None of the above :10 0 of 30

15 Albert Einstein’s brain was _____ the average adult male brain. 1. Slightly bigger than 2. The same size as 3. Slightly smaller than 0 0 30 :10

16 True or false? If you cut into a person’s brain while they are awake, they will feel pain. 1. True 2. False 0 of 30 10

17  The brain is a mass of nervous tissue with three major parts.  Cerebrum: Controls the senses, thought, speech, and voluntary actions.  Cerebellum: Coordinates muscle activity.  Brain Stem: Connects the brain to the spinal cord. ▪ Medulla: Controls involuntary actions, like breathing.

18 Weighs about 3 pounds.


20 1. What part of the brain helps a gymnast maintain balance while doing a routine? 1. Which part of the brain are you using to answer this question? 2. Which part keeps you alive? What does it do?

21 1. Cerebellum 2. Cerebrum; because it controls thinking and muscle movement 3. The medulla; it controls breathing and heart rate.

22  Our brain can “play tricks on us.” 

23 Right or Left Brained? Take the test  Are you right or left brained?  Complete the sheet and find out

24  Left Brain Functions:  * Uses logic  * Detail oriented  * Facts rule*  Words and language*  Present and past*  Math and science*  Comprehension*  Knowing*  Acknowledges*  Order/pattern perception*  Knows object name*  Reality based*  Forms strategies*  Practical*  Safe  Right Brain Functions:  * Uses feeling  * “Big picture” oriented  * Imagination rules*  Symbols and images*  Present and future*  Philosophy and religion*  Gets the “meaning”*  Believes*  Appreciates*  Spatial perception*  Knows object function*  Fantasy based*  Presents possibilities*  Impetuous*  Risk taking


26 Identifying Problems in the Nervous System  MRI –magnetic resonance imaging  Uses detection of radio frequency signals produced by displaced radio waves in a magnetic field.  EEG – electroencephalography  Measures electrical activity of the brain with scalp or brain electrodes

27 Identify Problems in the Nervous System  PET – positron emission tomography  Scanning method that detects radioactive material that is injected or inhaled to produce an image of the brain.  CT scan – computed tomography scan  Brain scan that uses a series of X-ray beans passed through the head

28 Nervous System Problems Multiple SclerosisMultiple Sclerosis (click for video) Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an unpredictable, often disabling disease of the central nervous system that disrupts the flow of information within the brain, and between the brain and body. No single test can diagnose MS. The medical history, neurologic exam and lab tests help physicians rule out other diseases and confirm the MS diagnosis.

29  Cerebral Palsy:  Might be caused by: ▪ A head injury ▪ A defect or injury to the brain before or during childbirth ▪ Lead poisoning ▪ Unintentional injury  Effects range from mild weakness in the arms and legs to lack of muscle coordination, speech impairment, and paralysis

30  Cerebral Palsy:  Picture from:

31  Meningitis:  Infection of the membranes the cover the brain and spinal cord  Symptoms include fever, headache, and vomiting  Can get vaccinated for some types Picture from: meningitis/index4.html

32  Epilepsy:  An electrical firestorm (too much at one time)  Marked by seizures ▪ Seizures: short periods of uncontrollable muscle activity  May be caused by a small area of brain damage  Epilepsy Foundation Epilepsy Foundation ▪ General information and statistics

33 NS Problems  Alzheimer’s Disease  Memory loss, dementia, depression, social withdrawal  2012 statistical information 2012 statistical information  Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  Named after baseball player Lou Gehrig  Weakness, paralysis, death of neurons in the motor cortex and spinal cord  Brain is great, message cannot get to muscles including diaphragm  Personal ALS story Personal ALS story

34  Spinal Cord Injuries:  Damage to the head, neck, or body can injure the spinal cord.  Severe weakness, loss of sensation, or paralysis can result.  Head Injuries:  Violent blow to the head can permanently damage brain tissue, nerves, and blood vessels surrounding the brain.

35 1. Get plenty of sleep and rest. 2. Avoid alcohol and other drugs. 3. Use a seat belt when riding in a car. 4. Wear a helmet for sports. 5. Follow safety rules.

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