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Medical Terminology Dr. Walid Daoud, MD, FCCP Assistant Professor.

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Presentation on theme: "Medical Terminology Dr. Walid Daoud, MD, FCCP Assistant Professor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Medical Terminology Dr. Walid Daoud, MD, FCCP Assistant Professor

2 Introduction Medical Terminology is the study of words that relate to body systems, anatomical structures, medical processes and procedures, and a variety of diseases that afflict human organism.

3 Word Root (WR) It is the basic stem word, usually derived from Greek or Latin language. WR is the building blocks for many Prefixes, Suffixes, Anatomical Words, Medical procedures. Word Root (WR) Word Root (WR) Greek Word Greek Word cardi cardi oste oste nephr nephr gastr gastr erythr erythr Kardia (heart) Kardia (heart) osteon (bone) osteon (bone) nephros (kidney) nephros (kidney) gastros (stomach) gastros (stomach) erythros (red) erythros (red)

4 Combining Form (CF) It is a WR to which a final vowel (usually “O”) is added (CF = WR / O). MeaningCFWR heart heart cell cell bone bone kidney kidney stomach stomach red red cardi / o cardi / o cyt / o cyt / o oste / o oste / o nephr / o nephr / o gastr / o gastr / o erythr / o erythr / o cardi cardi cyt cyt oste oste nephr nephr gastr gastr erythr erythr

5 Building Compound Words The vowel performs a connecting function. If second WR begins with a consonant: leuk / o cyt / o = white leuk / o cyt / o = white erythr / o cyt / o = red erythr / o cyt / o = red If the second WR begins with a vowel, the “O” is sometimes retained: gastr / o / enter / o = stomach and intestine gastr / o / enter / o = stomach and intestine In others, a combining vowel is not added: hem / angio = blood vessel hem / angio = blood vessel

6 Suffixes A suffix is a word element placed at the end of a word or stem to form a new word. Suffixes beginning with vowels: WR + Suffix = Medical Word WR + Suffix = Medical Word gastr + itis (inflammation) = gastritis gastr + itis (inflammation) = gastritis gastr + algia (pain) = gastralgia gastr + algia (pain) = gastralgia gastr + ectomy (excision) = gastrectomy gastr + ectomy (excision) = gastrectomy

7 Suffixes Suffixes beginning with consonants: Combining Form + Suffix = Medical Word WR + O WR + O col + O + tomy (incision) = colotomy col + O + tomy (incision) = colotomy col + O + scopy (examination) = coloscopy col + O + scopy (examination) = coloscopy col + O + rrhaphy (suture) = colorrhaphy col + O + rrhaphy (suture) = colorrhaphy

8 Summary of Rules Build medical words by the following rules: RULE 1. Add suffixes that begin with an initial vowel directly to the word root. RULE 2. Add a connecting vowel “O” to the word root when the suffix begins with a consonant.

9 Surgical Procedure Suffixes Example Example Meaning Meaning Suffix Suffix append/ectomy append/ectomy appendix appendix arthr/o/centesis arthr/o/centesis joint joint col/o/stomy col/o/stomy colon colon phleb/o/tomy phleb/o/tomy vein vein excision excision puncture puncture mouth, forming an opening mouth, forming an opening incision to cut incision to cut into into -ectomy -ectomy -o/centesis -o/centesis -o/stomy -o/stomy -o/tomy -o/tomy

10 Surgical Procedures Suffixes Example Example Meaning Meaning Suffix Suffix arthr/o/desis arthr/o/desis joint joint neur/o/rrhaphy neur/o/rrhaphy gastr/o/pexy gastr/o/pexy stomach stomach rhin/o/plasty rhin/o/plasty nose nose binding, binding, stabilization stabilization suture suture fixation, fixation, suspension suspension formation, formation, plastic repair plastic repair -desis -desis -o/rrhaphy -o/rrhaphy -o/pexy -o/pexy -o/plasty -o/plasty

11 Surgical Procedure Suffixes Example Example Meaning Meaning Suffix Suffix oste/o/clasis oste/o/clasis bone bone enter/o/lysis enter/o/lysis small intestine small intestine lith/o/tripsy lith/o/tripsy stone stone to break down, refracture to break down, refracture loosen, free loosen, free from adhesions, from adhesions, destruction destruction to crush to crush-o/clasis-o/lysis-o/tripsy

12 Diagnostic and Symptomatic Suffixes ExampleMeaning Suffix Suffix cephal/algia head cephal/o/dynia head hepato/cele liver bronchi/ectasis bronchus carcin/o/gen cancerpainpain hernia, swelling dilatation beginning, origin -algia -algia -o/dynia -o/dynia -o/cele -o/cele -ectasis -ectasis -o/gen -o/gen

13 Diagnostic and Symptomatic Suffixes ExampleMeaningSuffix chole/lith/iasis gall stone gastr/itis stomach bio/logy life oste/o/malacia bone hepat/o/megaly liver condition, formation of Inflammation study of softeningenlargement-iasis-itis-o/logy-o/malacia-o/megaly

14 Diagnostic and Symptomatic Suffixes ExampleMeaningSuffix lip/oid lipid aden/oma gland dermat/osis skin nephr/o/pathy kidney leuk/o/penia white (cell) resembletumor abnormal condition disease decrease, deficiency -oid-oma-osis-o/pathy-o/penia

15 Diagnostic and Symptomatic Suffixes ExampleMeaningSuffix dys/phagia difficult a/phasia without hemi/plegia half acro/phobia extremities hyster/o/ptosis uteruseatingspeechparalysisfear prolapse, falling -phagia-phasia-plegia-phobia-o/ptosis

16 Diagnostic and Symptomatic Suffixes ExampleMeaningSuffix hem/o/rrhage blood men/o/rrhea menses angi/o/rrhexis blood vessel arteri/o/sclerosis artery ot/o/scopy earhemorrhage discharge, flow rupturehardeningexamination-o/rrhage-o/rrhea-o/rrhexis-o/sclerosis-o/scopy

17 General Review-Suffixes For building a medical term The CF is used when a suffix begins with a consonant: a consonant: gastr/o/pexy leuk/o/cyte gastr/o/pexy leuk/o/cyte nephr/o/pexy oste/o/cyte nephr/o/pexy oste/o/cyte The WR is directly joined to the suffix when the suffix begins with a vowel: The WR is directly joined to the suffix when the suffix begins with a vowel: gastr/algia dermat/osis gastr/algia dermat/osis nephr/oma mast/ectomy nephr/oma mast/ectomy

18 Suffixes: Adjective Endings Example Adjective Ending cardi/ac (heart) neur/al (nerve) saliv/ary (saliva) hypo/derm/ic (under skin) med/ical (medicine) sub/cutane/ous (under skin) paraly/tic (paralysis) -ac-al-ary-ic-ical-ous-tic

19 Suffixes: Noun Endings ExampleMeaning Noun Ending Hemo/o/phil/iac (Blood love) Pneumon/ia Cut/is (skin) Alcohol/ism Uro/log/ist Myo/path/y (muscle disease) Indicates person afflicted with disease Forms noun from root Abnormal condition One who specializes Condition or process -iac-ia-is-ism-ist-y

20 Suffixes: Diminutive Endings ExampleMeaning Diminutive Ending arteri/ole artery part/icle piece pust/ule pimpleminutesmalllittle-ole-icle-ule

21 Plural Endings PluralSingular Plural Form Singular pleurae thor thoraces lumina appendices diagnoses ganglia bacteria digiti deformities carcinomata pleura thorax lumen appendix diagnosis ganglion bacterium digitus deformity carcinoma aeacesinaicessesaaiiesmataaaxenixsisonumusyma

22 Prefixes - Prefixes are derived from Greek or Latin language and used to build a medical language and used to build a medical vocabulary. vocabulary. - Prefixes are always located at the beginning of a word. of a word. - A prefix is always used in conjunction of combining form or a combining form and a combining form or a combining form and a suffix. suffix.

23 Prefixes of Position ExampleMeaningPrefix ambi/lateral side side amphi/crania skull skull ante/febrile fever fever pre/operative operation operation pro/otic ear ear both, both sides on both sides before, in front of ambi-amphi-ante-pre-pro-

24 Prefixes of Position ExampleMeaningPrefix dextr/o/cardia heart heart sinistr/o/cardia dors/algia pain pain epi/gastrium stomach stomach inter/costal ribs ribs to the right of to the left of backuponbetweendextr/o-sinistr/o-dors/o-epi-inter-

25 Prefixes of Position ExampleMeaningPrefix hypo/dermic skin skin mes/o/sternum chest plate chest plate retro/cervical neck neck postero/lateral to the side to the side under, below, beneath in the middle after, backward located behind hypo- infra- or Sub- mes/o-medi-retr/o-postero-

26 Prefixes of color ExampleMeaningPrefix albumin/oid resemble resemble chlor/emia blood blood glauc/oma Polio/myel/itis cirrh/osis abnormal condition whitegreengrayyellowalb-albumin/o-leuk/o-chlor/o-glauc/o-polio-cirrh/o-xanth/o-

27 Prefixes of Color ExampleMeaningPrefix cyan/o/derma skin skin melan/oma tumor tumor erythr/o/cyte cell cell purpur/ic pertaining to pertaining toblueblackredpurplecyan/o-melan/o-erythr/o-rube/o-purpur/o-

28 Prefixes of Number and Measurement ExampleMeaningPrefix primi/para to bear offspring to bear offspring mono/nucleus kernel kernel bi/lateral side di/plegia paralysis hemi/plegia paralysis paralysisfirstonetwohalfprimi-uni-mono-bi-di-hemi-

29 Prefixes of Number and Measurement ExampleMeaningPrefix hyper/tension hypo/tension strain strain multi/para to bear offspring to bear offspring tri/cephalus quadri/plegia paralysis paralysis macro/cephaly micro/gastria micro/gastria over, excessive under, below manythreefourlargesmallhyper-hypo-multi-poly-tri-quadri-macro-micro-

30 Prefixes of Negation ExampleMeaningPrefix a/phasia speech speech an/encephaly head head ar/rhythmia rhythm rhythm im/mature in/complete without, not, lack of not a- (used before a consonant) an- (used before a vowel) ar-im-in-

31 Prefixes of Direction ExampleMeaningPrefix ab/normal regular, usual regular, usual ad/sternal circum/renal peri/renal ec/topia place place dia/rrhea flow flowtrans/thorax from, away from to, toward, near around out from through, across ab-ad-circum-peri-ec-ex-dia-per-trans-

32 Prefix of Direction ExampleMeaningPrefix ecto/derm exo/phthalmia extra/bronchial endo/cranial intra/muscular para/colon super/lactation supra/pubic ultra/sonic outside in, within near, beside, beyondabove beyond, excess ecto-exo-extra-endo-intra-par-para-super-supra-ultra-

33 Miscellaneous Prefixes ExampleMeaningPrefix anti/bacterial contra/indicated brady/cardia tachy/cardia dys/pepsia digestion digestion eu/pnea hetero/cellularhomo/sexualagainstslowrapid bad, difficult good, easy differentsameanti-contra-brady-tachy-dys-eu-hetero-homo-

34 Miscellaneous Prefixes ExampleMeaningPrefix hidr/osis hydro/phobia mal/nutrition meta/carpal pan/hyster/ectomy pseudo/mening/itis scler/osis sym/podia syn/chilia sweatwater ill, bad, poor after, beyond allfalsehardunionhidr/o-hydr/o-mal-meta-pan-pseudo-scler/o-sym-syn-


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