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A rebel among rebels. Contrast with Yeats and the other literary contemporaries who tried to rediscover the Irish Celtic identity. The Joyces in Paris.

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Presentation on theme: "A rebel among rebels. Contrast with Yeats and the other literary contemporaries who tried to rediscover the Irish Celtic identity. The Joyces in Paris."— Presentation transcript:

1 A rebel among rebels. Contrast with Yeats and the other literary contemporaries who tried to rediscover the Irish Celtic identity. The Joyces in Paris James Joyce (1882-1941)

2 The Joyces in Paris He had two children, Giorgio and Lucia, with his long-time partner, Nora Barnacle, whom he eventually married. He left Dublin at the age of twenty-two and he settled for some time in Paris, then in Rome, Trieste, where he made friends with Italo Svevo, and Zurich.

3 The setting of most of his works  Ireland, especially Dublin. He rebelled against the Catholic Church. All the facts  explored from different points of view simultaneously.. The most important features of Joyce’s works

4 Greater importance given to the inner world of the characters. Time  perceived as subjective. His task  to render life objectively.. The most important features of Joyce’s works Isolation and detachment of the artist from society

5 Realism Disciplined prose Different points of view Free-direct speech Dubliners. The evolution of Joyce’s style

6 Published in 1914 on the newspaper The Irish Homestead by Joyce with the pseudonym Stephen Dedalus.. Dubliners Dubliners are described as afflicted people. All the stories are set in Dublin  “The city seemed to me the centre of paralysis”, Joyce stated. Nassau Street, Dublin, early 20th century

7 The stories present human situations They are arranged into 4 groups: The Sisters An Encounter Araby After the Race The Boarding House Eveline Two Gallants A Little Cloud Clay Counterparts A Painful Case Ivy Day in the Committee Room A Mother Grace Mature lifePublic lifeAdolescenceChildhood DUBLIN Paralysis / Escape. Dubliners: structure and style

8 Naturalistic, concise, detailed descriptions. Naturalism combined with symbolism  double meaning of details. Each story opens in medias res and is mostly told from the perspective of a character. Use of free-direct speech and free-direct thought  direct presentation of the character’s thoughts. 7. Dubliners: narrative technique and themes

9 . Dubliners: narrative technique and themes Different linguistic registers  the language suits the age, the social class and the role of the characters. Use of epiphany  “the sudden spiritual manifestation” of an interior reality. Themes  paralysis and escape. Absence of a didactic and moral aim because of the impersonality of the artist.

10 Joyce’s aim  to take the reader beyond the usual aspects of life through epiphany.. Dubliners: epiphany It is the special moment in which a trivial gesture, an external object or a banal situation or an episode lead the character to a sudden self-realisation about himself / herself or about the reality surrounding him / her. Understanding the epiphany in each story is the key to the story itself

11 . Dubliners: paralysis The climax of the stories  the coming to awareness by the characters of their own paralysis. Alternative to paralysis = escape which always leads to failure.

12 The story opens in medias res  “She sat at the window watching the evening invade the avenue” Third-person narrator but Eveline’s point of view. Subjective perception of time. Dubliners: Eveline Structure and style

13 The protagonists: Gabriel Conroy, an embodiment of Joyce himself, and Gretta, his wife. Epiphany  the song The Lass of Aughrim, reminds Gretta of a young man, Michael Furey, who died for her when he was seventeen years old.  Gabriel understands he is deader than Michael Furey in Gretta’s mind. Symbols  the snow, Gabriel’s journey to the west. Dubliners: The Dead Angelica Huston in John Huston’s The Dead (1987)

14 . The evolution of Joyce’s style Interior monologue with two levels of narration Extreme interior monologue Ulysses

15 Victorian novelUlysses Setting in time and place Victorian towns (London); English countryside Dublin Narrative techniqueThird-person narrative technique Stream-of- consciousness technique Subject matterRealistic, naturalisticThe character’s mind CharactersPresented from the outside Presented from the inside LanguageRealistic and concreteLanguage of the mind Ulysses and the Victorian novel

16 Published in 1922. Setting in time  a single day, Thursday 16th June, 1904. The setting in place  Dublin. A detailed account of ordinary life on an ordinary day. The theme is moral  human life means suffering but also struggling to seek the good.. Ulysses Ulysses, London, Egoist Press, 1922 (first English edition, printed in France).

17 Leopold Bloom  Joyce's common man; he stands for the whole of mankind. Molly Bloom  Leopold’s wife; she stands for flesh, sensuality, fecundity. Stephen Dedalus  pure intellect; he embodies every young man seeking maturity.. Ulysses: characters Poster for Sean Walsh’s Bloom (2003)

18 Odyssey  a structural framework for Ulysses. Characters and events arranged around Homeric model  Leopold = Odysseus Molly = Penelope Stephen = Telemachus Ulysses is divided into  Telemachiad (chapters 1-3) Odyssey (chapters 4-15) Nostos (chapters 16-18). Ulysses: the relation to Odyssey Head of Odysseus from a Greek 2nd century BC marble group representing Odysseus blinding Polyphemus, found at the villa of Tiberius at Sperlonga.

19 It allowed the parallel with the Odyssey and provided the book with a symbolic meaning. Homer’s myth  used to express the universal in the particular. It created a new form of realism.. Ulysses: the mythical method o psychology o ethnology o anthropology It was linked to the progress made by:

20 The stream of consciousness technique The cinematic technique Dramatic dialogue Juxtaposition of events Question and answers The language  rich in puns, paradoxes, images, interruptions, symbols, slang expressions; different linguistic registers to give voice to the unspoken activity of the mind.. Ulysses: a revolutionary prose Collage technique

21 Use of interior monologue  2 levels of narration. 1 st level: actions narrated from the outside  neutral point of view. 2 nd level: Leopold’s thoughts  Bloom’s point of view The action takes place in his mind. There is no difference between past, present and future. 11. Ulysses: The Funeral Part III Leopold attends a funeral.

22 Use of extreme interior monologue. Molly’s thoughts are free to move backwards (“they called it on…”) and forwards in time (“shall I wear…”). Complete absence of punctuation and introductions to people and events, spelling and grammar mistakes  they give voice to her flow of thoughts.. Ulysses: Molly’s monologue

23 Virginia Woolf (1882-1941) Her father Leslie Stephen was an eminent Victorian man of letters. She grew up in a literary and intellectual atmosphere with free access to her father’s library Childhood experiences of death and sexual abuse led to depression the death of her mother when she was 13 her stepbrothers Leslie Stephen with Virginia Woolf.

24 . Literary career The Bloomsbury Group  In 1904 she moved to Bloomsbury and became a member of the Bloomsbury Group. This meant the rejection of traditional morality and artistic convention. Experimentation  best known as one of the great experimental novelists during the modernist period. Only Connect... New Directions The Bloomsbury Group

25 Main aim  to give voice to the complex inner world of feeling and memory. The human personality  a continuous shift of impressions and emotions. Narrator  disappearance of the omniscient narrator. Point of view  shifted inside the characters’ minds through flashbacks, associations of ideas, momentary impressions presented as a continuous flux.. A modernist novelist Vanessa Bell, Mrs St John Hutchinson, 1915, Tate Gallery, London

26 . Mrs Dalloway (1925) Takes place on a single ordinary day in June 1923. Follows the protagonist through a very small area of London, from the morning to the night of the day on which she gives a large formal party. Clarissa Dalloway’s party is the climax of the novel and unifies the narrative by gathering all the people she thinks about during the day. Cover for the first edition of Mrs. Dalloway, London, Hogarth Press, 1925.

27 A London society lady of fifty-one, the wife of a Conservative MP, Richard Dalloway, who has conventional views on women’s rights. Had a possessive father, refused Peter Walsh, a man who would force her to share everything. Clarissa Dalloway Vanessa Redgrave as Mrs. Dalloway in Marleen Gorris’s 1997 film adaptation. Mrs Dalloway (1925)

28 Characterized by opposing feelings: her need for freedom and independence and her class consciousness. Her life appears to be an effort towards order and peace, an attempt to overcome her weakness and sense of failure. Vanessa Redgrave as Mrs. Dalloway in Marleen Gorris’s 1997 film adaptation. Mrs Dalloway (1925) Clarissa Dalloway

29 . Mrs Dalloway (1925) Septimus Warren Smith A young poet and lover of Shakespeare. When the war broke out, enlisted for patriotic reasons. An extremely sensitive man who can suddenly fall prey to panic and fear, or feelings of guilt. Rupert Graves as Septimus in Marleen Gorris’s 1997 film adaptation

30 . Mrs Dalloway (1925) Septimus Warren Smith A character specifically connected with the war. Suffers from headaches and insomnia. Finally commits suicide. Rupert Graves as Septimus in Marleen Gorris’s 1997 film adaptation

31 1. Woolf vs Joyce Woolf’s stream of consciousness Joyce’s stream of consciousness never lets her characters’ thoughts flow without control, maintains logical and grammatical organisation characters show their thoughts directly through interior monologue, sometimes in an incoherent and syntactically unorthodox way

32 Moments of being Epiphanies Rare moments of insight during the characters’ daily life when they can see reality behind appearances The sudden spiritual manifestation caused by a trivial gesture, an external object  the character is led to a self-realization about himself/herself 2. Woolf vs Joyce

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