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BRAIN DAMAGE Presentation by Dr Adelbert Scholtz (counselling psychologist & retired pastor)

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Presentation on theme: "BRAIN DAMAGE Presentation by Dr Adelbert Scholtz (counselling psychologist & retired pastor)"— Presentation transcript:

1 BRAIN DAMAGE Presentation by Dr Adelbert Scholtz (counselling psychologist & retired pastor)

2 BRAIN DAMAGE 1. The Human Brain 2. Causes of Brain Damage 3. Results of Brain Damage 4. Rehabilitation 5. Prevention

3 1. THE HUMAN BRAIN

4 Protected by the skull Lateral view of the right cerebral hemisphere of the human brain, shown inside the skull. A number of convolutions (called gyri) and fissures (called sulci) in the surface define four lobes—the parietal, frontal, temporal, and occipital—that contain major functional areas of the brain

5 The human skull

6 Inside the skull

7 The human skull The brain fits snugly inside the skull

8 The human brain Weighs less than 2 kg Uses + 20% of the oxygen in the body The most complex system in the whole universe There are more neurons in your head than stars in the Milky Way

9 The human brain You cannot live without a healthy brain The most precious organ in your body

10 The human brain Ps 8:4-6 – “What is man, that you think of him? The son of man, that you care for him? For you have made him a little lower than the angels, and crowned him with glory and honor. You make him ruler over the works of your hands. You have put all things under his feet.”

11 The vulnerable brain Because the brain is so complex it is also very vulnerable Damaged body parts (bones, skin &tc) can repair themselves when broken or damaged Damaged or dead neurons can usually not be repaired or replaced

12 2. CAUSES OF BRAIN DAMAGE Genetic factors Developmental factors Malnutrition Illness Injuries & accidents Drug & alcohol abuse Poisoning Tumours Strokes Dementia

13 Genetic factors The following brain disorders may be caused by heriditary factors: Hydrocephalus Autism ADHD Tourette’s syndrome

14 Developmental factors A child’s brain may be damaged during the delivery process and afterwards, resulting in – Cerebral paralysis Retardation &tc

15 Malnutrition The brains of children who are malnourished cannot develop optimally Result: intellectual disability or retardation

16 Illness Meningitis – An inflammation in the “skin” of the brain between the skull and the brain; Caused by bacteria or a virus May damage neurons

17 Injuries & Accidents Knocks against the head may cause the brain to crash against the skull Bleeding may occur Neurons may be damaged

18 Injuries & Accidents Skull fracture may cause – Bleeding inside the skull Serious injury to the brain itself

19 Drug & alcohol abuse Irreversible brain damage is inevitable due to these poisons The brain of a tik user

20 Drug & alcohol abuse Irreversible brain damage is inevitable due to poisoning The brain of an alcoholic

21 Drug & alcohol abuse Pregnant women who drink or abuse drugs are guilty of a horrendous crime – they destroy their babies’ brains The baby is born as an alcoholic or a drug addict These children are uneducatable

22 Drug & alcohol abuse Fetal alcohol syndrome

23 Tumours Tumours destroy brain material The loss is irreversible

24 Tumours Tumours are classified between 1 and 4: 1 = benign 4 = extremely malignant (cancerous) Patients with type 4 usually die after a few months, with or without an operation, chemotherapy or radiation therapy

25 Stroke Also called a “cerebro-vascular accident” Caused by – – Either a blockage in an artery (thrombosis), depriving a part of the brain of blood and oxygen; – Or leakage of blood from an artery, causing pressure inside the skull and killing off large numbers of neurons

26 Stroke Areas of the brain affected may never recover The loss is permanent

27 Dementia Alzheimer’s disease, motor neuron disease and other dementias amount to a degeneration of the nervous system Main symptom: memory loss

28 3. RESULTS OF BRAIN DAMAGE Paralysis – partial or total Loss of consciousness Loss of speech Loss of sense organs Intellectual impairment Memory loss Personality change Death

29 Paralysis Damage to the motor regions of the brain due to a stroke or a bad knock during an accident may cause partial or total paralysis

30 Loss of consciousness Victims of serious cases of stroke, injuries & tumours may loose consciousness Many patients in a coma have to be kept alive by machines

31 Loss of speech The speech centres of the brain may be damaged The patient may be unable to speak or to understand speech by others

32 Loss of sense organs The victim/patient may loose eyesight, hearing, smell or other sensory sensations – depending on the site of the injury/tumour/damage

33 Intellectual impairment The ability to reason, calculate, judge or make decisions may be seriously affected – depending on the site in the brain affected

34 Memory loss Patients/victims may loose their memories, their sense of identity and sense of orientation Inability to learn anything new In stroke or dementia patients, often only the short- term memory is affected These patients/victims need constant care

35 Personality change Damage to the brain usually leads to a change of personality Patients/victims may become depressed, euphoric, irresponsible, easily angered, uninterested in their appearance, unable to manage their own affairs, asocial and may revert to infantile behaviour

36 Death People may die due to – Cerebral hemorrhage (stroke) Overdose of drugs & alcohol Poisoning Serious brain damage after an accident Too much pressure inside the skull due to a tumour or bleeding

37 Death Death is inevitable How do you choose to die? Conclusion: protect and nurture your brain as far as possble!

38 4. REHABILITATION Special education Occupational therapy Physiotherapy

39 Rehabilitation No two cases of brain damage are the same A personal programme has to be devised for each victim/patient

40 Special education The brains of young children are more adaptable Some of the damage may be managed by special education & care Separate institutions for cases of cerebral paralysis, brain injury, autistic children and ADHD cases

41 Occupational therapy Children and adults with brain damage may be taught new skills

42 Physiotherapy Stroke victims, cases of brain injury & others may benefit from physiotherapy and special exercise programmes to regain some mobility

43 5. PREVENTION Avoid accidents and injuries Get early medical advice Exercise Healthy nutrition Spiritual balance

44 Avoid accidents and injuries Drive your car defensively Avoid violent sports, such as boxing, soccer or rugby

45 Get early medical advice Go to your medical practitioner if you have – High blood pressure Constant headaches Dizzy spells Double vision

46 Exercise Exercise – Helps to keep your brain oxygenated Releases stress Keeps high blood pressure in check

47 Healthy nutrition Your brain needs – Omega-3 fatty acids Magnesium & calcium Zinc Vitamin B complex Vitamin C & E They help to keep your arteries clean from cholesterol and homocysteine

48 Healthy nutrition Your brain needs – Fresh fruit Fresh veggies Fish Nuts Lots of clean water Only eat stuff that occurs in nature (not chocolate bars, ice cream or cookies)

49 Healthy nutrition Avoid – Food fried in fat or oil Sugar & refined carbohydrates Alcohol & drugs They mess with your brain chemicals

50 Healthy nutrition Keep your weight down Obesity improves the risk of strokes & heart attacks

51 Spiritual balance 1 Tim 4: 7 & 8 “But refuse profane and old wives` fables. Exercise yourself toward godliness. For bodily exercise has some value, but godliness has value for all things, having the promise of the life which is now, and of that which is to come.”

52 Any questions? Remember, I don’t know everything Please have mercy upon me But I will try

53 Remember! Your donation (the hall, refreshments & administration have to be paid for)* To complete a membership form (it’s free to join) To tell your friends about our support group * [Unfortunately, we don’t have credit card facilities]

54 Good night, sleep tight!


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