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Biology 1060 Chapter 4 Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life.

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Presentation on theme: "Biology 1060 Chapter 4 Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology 1060 Chapter 4 Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life

2 Carbon: Backbone of Biological Molecules Explain why “carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form molecules that are large, complex, and diverse” Describe emergent properties of carbon –discuss their contribution to the organization of matter in living organisms Discuss how the diversity of carbon-based molecules contributes to the diversity of life

3 Organic Chemistry Describe the original concept of “organic chemistry” and the ideas associated with it Discuss the modern understanding of “organic chemistry” and the ideas associated with it Describe three scientific experiments that lead to the modern definition of organic chemistry and the conclusions they reached

4 Carbon is Tetravalent Define tetravalence –discuss how tetravalence explains carbon’s ability to form diverse molecules from a small array of elements Use a tetrahedron to describe the building of molecules with one, two or more carbons Use a tetrahedron to describe the building of molecules with one, two or more carbons Describe the effect of single and double bonds on the shapes of carbon molecules

5 Evolution Connection p.67 What properties does silicon share with carbon? Does that make it likely that life in the universe may include organisms with silicon-based chemistry? Is it possible to have chemistry based on additional elements, such as aluminum or neon?

6 Molecular Diversity Describe the sources of molecular diversity of carbon compounds Define hydrocarbon –Explain their significance to organisms

7 Isomers Define isomer –Describe the different types of isomers Describe how double-bonds affect the atoms they connect –Give an example from organisms Describe the asymmetric carbon –Describe how molecules with asymmetrical carbons may be used by cells

8 Scientific Inquiry p. 67 In 1918, a sleeping sickness epidemic resulted in some patients with paralysis similar to that in Parkinson’s disease –A chemical, L-dopa, relieves they symptoms of Parkinson’s disease –L-dopa temporarily relieved the paralysis of sleeping sickness patients with paralysis –D-dopa has no effect on either Suggest a hypothesis to explain this data

9 Functional Groups Define functional groups Discuss their importance using testosterone and estradiol as examples List and describe the properties of each of the six most important functional groups –Fig. 4.10

10 Adenosine Triphosphate Describe the ATP molecule Discuss its importance in cells

11 Science, Technology, and Society p years ago, thalidomide caused birth defects in women taking it to relieve morning sickness In 1998, FDA approved its use in the treatment of Hansen’s disease (leprosy) –It also has possible efficacy in treating AIDS, tuberculosis and some cancers Is approving this drug appropriate? –Under what conditions? –What criteria should be used to weigh a drug’s risks and benefits


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