Presentation on theme: "Stroke Christina M. Allen May 8, 2006. Impact of Stroke Approximately 700,000 Americans suffer from a new stroke or recurrent stroke each year Strokes."— Presentation transcript:
Impact of Stroke Approximately 700,000 Americans suffer from a new stroke or recurrent stroke each year Strokes kill nearly 157,000 each year Stroke is the number 3 cause of death For every 5 stroke deaths, 2 are men and 3 are women 1/5 of all stroke victims will develop mental disabilities
Types of Stroke Clot (Ischemic) 83% of all cases Result of an obstruction within a blood vessel supplying blood to the brain Due to the development of fatty deposits lining the vessel walls, called atherosclerosis Fatty deposits can cause cerebral thrombosis or a cerebral embolism
Types of Stroke Bleed (Hemorrhagic) 17% of all cases Results from a weakened vessel that ruptures and bleeds into the surrounding brain Two types of Hemorrhagic strokes: intracerebral and subarachnoid Two types of weakened blood vessels: aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations
Effects of Stroke If a stroke occurs and blood flow cannot reach a region that works a particular body function, that part of the body will not work as well. Right Brain Paralysis on left side Vision problems Quick, inquisitive behavioral style Memory loss Left Brain Paralysis on right side Speech/language problems Slow, cautious behavioral style Memory loss
Communication Complications Aphasia Results from damage to language centers to the brain Impaired ability to use or comprehend words Understanding words Finding words to express a thought Understanding grammatical sentences Reading or writing words or sentences
Communication Complications Apraxia Difficulty initiating and executing voluntary movement patterns necessary to produce speech without paralysis Difficult to: Produce desired speech sounds Using correct rhythm and rate of speaking
Communication Complications Auditory Overload Many skills are needed to translate sounds and it can sometimes be overwhelming The brain cannot decipher meaningful speech from noise Dysarthria Slurred speech Affects pronunciation, quality and loudness of voice, and ability to speak at a normal rate
Communication Complications Vascular Dementia A decline in ability as a result of a stroke or many small strokes Symptoms: Memory loss Confusion Mood Swings and personality changes Language problems Difficulty paying attention or following conversation Impaired motor skills Visual problems Difficulty making decisions and solving problems Depression
Memory Madness Association To recall something more easily, associate it with something you already know or remember Visualization Form a picture of the thing you want to remember Repetition and Rehearsal Repeat new info to yourself several times Compensation Write it down!
Ways of Communicating Ask yes/no questions Paraphrase periodically during conversation Modify length of conversation Use gestures to emphasize important points
Behavior Interventions Treat the person with respect Offer praise Give the person choices Be assertive and set necessary limits
Personal Experience During my internship in cardiac rehab, we had a patient who had had a stroke prior to her heart attack. When she would come into rehab, she never remembered why she was there. Each day I would tell her to get her folder and I would help her fill out the exercise log. She never wanted to exercise and she had the quickest come backs. Every day we had to help her with her exercise prescription and help her remember what she was to do in rehab.
How I Communicated with her… Slow, clear speech Repetition Short explanations but to the point Short reminders on her folder Hugs…in order to make her happy to be there
References American Stroke Association www.strokeassociation.org National Stroke Association www.stroke.org Stroke, Journal of the American Heart Association www.stroke.ahajournals.org