FAS stunted growth and distinct facial features Brain damage resulting in difficulty learning and inability to recognize cause and effect (difficulty knowing right from wrong). Depending on when damage occurred during pregnancy: Heart Murmur, Spina bifida, Hydrocepalus, Eye, liver and kidney problems, fetal tumors Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
“Alien Hand” Syndrome Often found in epileptics who have had their corpus callosum cut. Non-dominant hand has a “mind of its own.”
ADHD Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder Dopamine thought to be reabsorbed too quickly It does not spend enough time in the synapse Ritalin : increases dopamine & norepinephrine Ritalin also known as methylphenidate Long term effects unknown!
Multiple Sclerosis An acquired inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS Cells of the immune system invade the CNS and destroy myelin It strikes people in the prime of their lives, usually between 20 and 40 years of age Both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the disease.
Autism Abnormalities in brain Some studies suggest abnormality exists in specific protein responsible for re-uptake of serotonin Other studies indicate problem with receptor for GABA (gamma amino butyric acid) Brain’s chemical message system not functioning properly
Parkinson’s Disease Progressive degeneration of midbrain Midbrain loses it’s ability to produce dopamine Dopamine is an opiate-like neurotransmitter Dopamine produces feelings of well being Results in muscular tremors, partial facial paralysis and general weakness L-dopa given to slow Watch movie “Awakenings” with Robin Williams
Alzheimer’s Disease Memory robbing disorder Amyloid protein deposits or plaques form in cerebral cortex Memory affected Temporal lobe of cerebrum affected Scientists working to find ways to prevent plaque build up
Associated with prefrontal cortex Severe disturbances in thinking, social behavior and emotion Once thought to be caused by traumatic events in childhood Today Schizophrenia is thought to be associated with chemical imbalances in the frontal lobe of cerebrum Schizophrenia
Spinal Cord Injuries Spinal cord may be damaged by disease or injury If spinal neurons in cervical area damaged: result is complete paralysis This is known as quadriplegia If spinal neurons in lower back (lumbar area) are damaged: paraplegia
Hydrocephalus Water on the brain Caused by build up of csf due to over production or inability to drain excess csf Pressure builds up and squeezes brain against skull Reduced brain mass and intelligence results Shunt may be implanted to drain csf
Permanently disabling birth defect. Spine does not close properly in first month. Spinal cord may protrude through the back Spina Bifida
Cerebral Palsy Caused by insufficient supply of oxygen to the fetus Possibly occurring during birth process Result is reduced or lack of muscle coordination Brains are perfectly normal in terms of learning capabilities
Encephalitis Inflammation of the brain Usually caused by virus or bacteria Encephalitis lethargica (or sleeping sickness) is an example Person feels apathetic, has double vision and extreme weakness Japanese encephalitis Virus transmitted by mosquito Leads to paralysis, seizures and coma
Meningitis Inflammation of membranes surrounding brain and spinal cord Usually caused by virus or bacteria Person has cold symptoms initially then becomes increasingly ill Membranes inflamed include Dura mater, Arachnoid and Pia mater (outer, middle and inner meninges)
Abnormal electrical discharge of brain cells or Misfiring of circuits Epilepsy
Nervous system disorder that produces sudden, intense bursts of electrical activity in the brain.Nervous system This abnormal electrical activity in the brain causes seizures –which may briefly upset a person's muscle control, movement, speech, vision, or awareness.
Kuru Noticed in New Guinea in early 1900s Women of the region were responsible for preparing the corpse of those who died – often ate brain matter, fed it to children and elderly Eight times more women than men contracted kuru
Kuru Disease has three stages: –Ambulant: Individual can still walk, but is uncoordinated, has slurred speech. –Sedentary (AKA Laughing Stage) Can’t walk on their own, have tremors and jerkiness Extreme emotions – laughing and crying. –Terminal Cannot sit up on their own Urinary & fecal incontinence Sounds like affect of alcohol.